BSC 108 Final: Biology Final Exam Study Guide

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University of Alabama
Biological Sciences
BSC 108
Christine J.Yates

1. What is microevolution? a. Changes in allele frequencies within populations b. Often associated with adaption c. Can be measured from one generation to the next 2. What is macroevolution? a. Major changes in the history of life b. Origin of new species c. Generates biological diversity i. evolution on a scale at or above the level of species, 3. What is a species? a. A population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed with one another in nature to produce fertile offspring, reproductively isolated from other such groups 4. What is allopatric speciation? a. Species evolve in geographic isolation b. Usually associated with a geographic barrier, preventing members of two populations from mating with one another c. Involves independent evolution of the populations after the barrier arises i. 1. Founder effect 5. What is sympatric speciation? a. Species evolve without geographic isolation- species remain together, with potential to interbreed b. Probably associated with a genetic barrier due to a single mutational event c. Important in plants, but not in widespread among animals i. Important in plants 6. What special circumstances are required to keep the gene pools separated in sympatric speciation? a. Species evolve without geographic isolation- species remain together, with potential to interbreed b. Probably associated with a genetic barrier due to a single mutational event c. Important in plants, but not in widespread among animals i. segregation of habitat ii. major alterations in mate recognition or behavior iii. genetic incompatibility 7. Know the two models of the Pace of Speciation. a. Gradualism: i. slow and steady accumulation of all changes lead to production of species over vast stretches of time 1. envisioned by Darwin 1. Punctuated equilibrium i. mechanism produced by Eldred and Gould ii. species diverge in spurts of rapid change followed by period of stasis 1. fossil record b. 8. What are prezygotic barriers? Know the 5 types. a. Temporal isolation b. Habitat isolation c. Behavioral isolation d. Mechanical isolation e. Gametic isolation 9. What are postzygotic barriers? Know the 3 types. a. Hybrid inviability- offspring fail to complete development, keep gene pools of the two species isolation from one another b. Hybrid sterility- F1 is sterile i. Think mules c. Hybrid breakdown - F1 is viable and fertile, F2 is sterile, weak and feeble 10. What is ecology? a. the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environments 11. What are abiotic factors? Know the 5 examples. a. Energy source b. Temperature c. Water d. Wind e. Rocks and soil 12. What are biotic factors? Know some examples. a. Human influence b. Pathogens c. Disease outbreaks i. The living factors in the environment i. Grass as producers (autotrophs). 13. What are the four levels of ecology? Know what each is concerned with. a. Organismal i. Concerned with evolutionary adaptations that enable individual organism to meet the challenges posed by their abiotic environment ii. Survival and reproduction 1. the unit of natural selection b. Population i. Concerned with populations, groups of individuals of the same species living in the same area ii. Concentrates mainly on factors that affect population density and growth 1. population’s dynamics a. the unit of evolution c. Community i. Is concerned with communities, assemblages of populations of different species ii. Focuses on how interactions between species affect community structure and organization 1. interactions among populations d. Ecosystem i. Is concerned with ecosystems, which include all the abiotic factors in addition to the community of species in a certain area ii. Focuses on energy flow and the cycling of chemicals among the various abiotic and biotic factors iii. energy flux and cycling of the nutrients e. Biosphere i. The global ecosystem 14. What is a habitat? a. Environment, location b. Specific environments in which organisms live 15. What are 3 types of adaptations that enable organisms to adjust to changes in their environment? a. Physiological i. In mechanisms of temperature regulation, responses by organisms occur quickly ii. Acclimation 1. A physiological response that is longer term iii. The ability to acclimate 1. Is related to the range of environmental conditions a species naturally experiences b. Anatomical i. Many organisms respond to environmental challenge with some type of change in body shape or anatomy 1. Respond to environmental challenge with some type of body change c. Behavioral i. In contrast to plants, most animals can respond to an unfavorable change in the environment by moving to a new locations ii. Humans exhibit an especially rich range of behavioral responses 1. Respond to change by moving or different action 16. Name 2 types of Aquatic Biomes? What is the salinity of each? a. Marine biomes - oceans, intertidal zones, coral reefs i. 3% of salt concentration b. Freshwater biomes - lakes, streams rivers and wetlands i. Salt concentration less than 1% 17. What are some uses for freshwater? a. drinking water, crop irrigation, sanitation and industry 18. What are the 2 categories of freshwater? Know examples of each. a. Standing water - includes lakes and pond b. Flowing water - includes rivers and streams 19. What are wetlands? a. Transitional biome between an aquatic ecosystem and terrestrial one 20. What are estuaries? a. Are areas where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean 21. How are terrestrial biomes determined? Know the examples from class. a. determined by climate, especially temperature and rainfall i. Tundra. ii. Rainforest. iii. Savanna. iv. Taiga. v. Temperate forest. vi. Temperate grassland. vii. Alpine. 22. What is the tree line? a. 12,000 feet 23. Know the water cycle. a. Precipitation, accumulation, evaporation, condensation 24. What is population density? a. Number of individuals of a species per unit of area or volume 25. What is the mark-and-recapture technique and why is it utilized? a. Trapped, marked and then recaptured after a period of time b. Used to estimate population density 26. What are the 2 growth models? Know what each one looks like on a graph. a. Exponential growth i. The exponential rate of expansion of a population under ideal recourses Ii. looks like a J 1. Logistic growth i. The expansion of a population under population-limiting factors Ii. looks like an S 27.What is carrying capacity? b. The number of individuals in a population that the environmental can just maintain with no net increase or decrease 27. How does the US Endangered Species Act define an endangered species vs a threatened species? a. Defines an endangered species as one that is “in danger of extinction throughout all or significant portion of its range” b. Defines a threatened species as one likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future 28. What is a community? a. Assemblages of populations of different species 29. What is an ecological niche? a. The species ecological role i. the role and position a species has in its environment; how it meets its needs for food and shelter, how it survives, and how it reproduces 30. What did G. F. Gause study? What model organism did he utilize? a. Russian ecologist G.F. Gause studied the effects of interspecific competition in two closely related species of protists b. 31. What were his results? a. P aurelia outcompeted P. Caudatum and P. Caudatum died out b. Two species so similar that they compete for the same limiting resources cannot coexist in the same place, if their niches are identical- Competitive Exclusion Principle c. Two possible outcomes: ● Extinction of one species ● Evolution of one species to use a different set of resources 32. What does the competitive exclusion principle state? a. Two species so similar that they compete for the same limiting resources cannot coexist in the same place, if their niches are identical 33. Know the difference between predator and prey. a. Predator-organism that eats another organism b. Prey-the organism that the predator eats 34. What are some of the plant defenses against herbivores? a. Mechanical Defenses. i. impenetrable barrier composed of bark and a waxy cuticle. ii. hard shells, thorns (modified branches), and spines (modified leaves). 35. What are some of the animal defenses
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