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HIST M110B Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Sasanian Empire, Roman Empire, Zoroastrianism


Department
History
Course Code
HIST M110B
Professor
Mousavi
Study Guide
Final

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HIST M110B

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History of Sasanian Empire
Lakhmids
Ghassanids
Makes border after Caspian Sea --> like the great wall
Ctesiphon
Agriculture -- main asset to Sasanians
Armenia & Mesopotamia (apart of Sasanian)
A = high plateau
Important to Sasanians because whoever controlled Armenia controlled gate to northwestern part
of Iran)
Predecessors of Sasanians
1. Achaemenids 550 - 330 BC
2. Parthians 250 BC - AD 224
Cuneiform - system of writing/language
Early Persians
844 first mention of persians by shalmansea III
Invaded Parsua possibly
691 Persians named as allies of Elamites
650 Parsumash mentioned in assyrian texts
330 BC: Destruction of Persepolis, end of Achaemenid empire.
326 BC - 200 BC: Seleucid supremacy in Iran and Mesopotamia
200 BC - 224 AD: Parthian empire (Arsacid empire)
200 BC: Persis (Persia) dynasty ruling first under Seleucids then under Parthians.
Persis dynasty disappeared around 200 AD, then Ardashir dynasty came (eliminated Persis on/around?)
Ardashir rebelled against Artabanus IV (Parthian) and was killed in battle.
ORIGIN OF ARDASHIR (pg. 15-16 of handout)
Genealogy is obscure but there are some inscription
1. Sasanian epigraphic (stone) and numismatic (coin) evidence:
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a. (Ancestor) of Sasanian dynasty > Sasan
b. (Father) > King Papag
i. 1st son > King Shapur
ii. 2nd son > "King of kings"; Ardashir
Shapur was supposed to succeed Papak but died suddenly.
2. Literary Evidence:
a. Kar-Namag Ardashir Pabagan (Book of Deeds)
i. Life story, rise to throne, battle against Parthian king (Ardawan)
ii. No mention of brother in book
b. Book of the Kings-- Tabari
i. Sasan had son Tabari and Ardashir (no mention of Shapur)
Chronology
205-208: Papag family overthrew Gozihr, ruler of Istakhr and seized power.
216: Death of Papag; Shapur's succession (Ardashir's bro) as King of Fars
218: Death of Shapur
224: End of Parthian by killing last Parthian king (Artabanus V) in battle of Hormozdigan.
226: Ardashir captured Ctesiphon and became King of kings.
225-230: Defeated Armenian ruler and began Roman invasions in Mesopotamia and Syria.
"…Will i ak eerythig Persias eer had, laiig it as his rightful iheritae fro forefathers"
230: Besieged Nisibis and most of Syria but was counterattacked by Romans and had to retreat.
238: Invaded Syria again.
230 - 240: Internal reform of army & govt, established strong central govt by appointing family to be
head of key provinces
Religious reforms > creation of formal state church.
First time in history, national religion > Zoroastrianism
Before then, no state religio ad religio did’t play role i decisio akig.
239-242: Joint rule of father and son (Shapur and Ardashir)
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