Chapter 4: Values, Attitudes, and Work Behaviour
Values: A broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over
Preference aspect: Means that values have to do with what
we consider good or bad. Values are motivational since they
signal the attractive aspects of our environment that we seek
and the unattractive aspects that we try to avoid or change.
Broad tendency: Means that values are very general and that
they do not predict behavior in specific situations very well.
The Four Generations in today’s workplace: the Traditionalists, baby
boomers, Generation X, and the Millennials (or Generation Y).
Generations are demarcated by being of different ages, and having
gone through different socialization experiences.
Work Centrality. Work itself is valued differently across cultures.
Hofstede’s Study: discovered four basic dimensions along which work-
related values differed across cultures: power distance, uncertainty
avoidance, masculinity/femininity, and individualism/collectivism.
Power Distance: The extent to which an unequal distribution
of power is accepted by society members (including those
who hold more power, and those who hold less). In small
power distance cultures, inequality is minimized. In large
power distance societies, inequality is accepted as natural.
Uncertainty avoidance: The extent to which people are
uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations.
Strong, uncertainty avoidance cultures stress rules and
regulations.. Cultures with weak uncertainty avoidance are
less concerned with rules…
Masculinity/Femininity: More masculine cultures clearly
differentiate gender roles, support dominance of men, and
stress economic performance. More feminine cultures accept
fluid gender roles, stress sexual equality, and stress quality of
In Hofstede’s research: Japan is the most masculine society,
and the Scandinavian countries are the most feminine.
Individualism/Collectivism: Individualistic societies stress
independence, individual initiative, and privacy. Collective
cultures favour interdependence and loyalty to family or clan.
Long-term/short-term orientation: Cultures with a long-
term orientation tend to stress persistence, perseverance, thrifts, and close attention to status differences. Cultures with
short-term orientation stress personal steadiness and
stability, face-saving, and social niceties.
Different organizational behavior theories, research and practices must
not translate well into other societies. The answers usually differ.
An appreciation of cross-cultural differences in values is essential to
understanding the needs and tastes of customers or clients around the
Attitude: A fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to
some specific object, situation, person or category of people.
Attitudes are tendencies to respond to the target of the attitude. Thus,
attitudes often influence our behavior toward some object, situation,
person, or group. Attitude Behavior
Behavior is most likely to correspond to attitudes when people have
direct experience with the target of the attitude and when the attitude
is held confidently.
Attitudes are a function of what we think and what we feel.
Belief + Value => Attitude Behavior
Job Satisfaction: A collection of attitudes that workers have about their
A popular measure of job satisfaction is the Job Descriptive Index
(JDI). It’s a questionnaire that is designed around five facets of
satisfaction. Another measure of satisfaction is the Minnesota
Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). Respondents indicate how happy
they are with various aspects of their job on a scale.
Factors that determine job satisfaction:
Discrepancy Theory: A theory that job satisfaction stems from the
discrepancy between the job outcomes wanted and the outcomes that
are perceived to be obtained.
Associated beliefs and values cause the differences in job satisfaction.
Fairness: Performance is judged only on what you create by
your n products,
o Distributive Fairness (or distributive justice):
Fairness that occurs when people receive the outcomes
they think they deserve from their jobs – it involves the
ultimate distribution of work rewards and resources
Equity theory: a theory that job satisfaction stems from
a comparison of the inputs one invests in a job and the outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs
and outcomes of another person or group.
My outcomes / My Inputs = Other’s outcomes /
Inputs: Anything that people give up, offer, or trade to
their organization in exchange for outcomes.
Outcomes: Factors that an organizat