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MGCR 222 (39)

4 - Values, Attitudes, and Work Behaviour

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Management Core
MGCR 222
Yongheng Yao

Chapter 4: Values, Attitudes, and Work Behaviour Values: A broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others.  Preference aspect: Means that values have to do with what we consider good or bad. Values are motivational since they signal the attractive aspects of our environment that we seek and the unattractive aspects that we try to avoid or change.  Broad tendency: Means that values are very general and that they do not predict behavior in specific situations very well. The Four Generations in today’s workplace: the Traditionalists, baby boomers, Generation X, and the Millennials (or Generation Y). Generations are demarcated by being of different ages, and having gone through different socialization experiences. Work Centrality. Work itself is valued differently across cultures. Hofstede’s Study: discovered four basic dimensions along which work- related values differed across cultures: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity, and individualism/collectivism.  Power Distance: The extent to which an unequal distribution of power is accepted by society members (including those who hold more power, and those who hold less). In small power distance cultures, inequality is minimized. In large power distance societies, inequality is accepted as natural.  Uncertainty avoidance: The extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations. Strong, uncertainty avoidance cultures stress rules and regulations.. Cultures with weak uncertainty avoidance are less concerned with rules…  Masculinity/Femininity: More masculine cultures clearly differentiate gender roles, support dominance of men, and stress economic performance. More feminine cultures accept fluid gender roles, stress sexual equality, and stress quality of life. In Hofstede’s research: Japan is the most masculine society, and the Scandinavian countries are the most feminine.  Individualism/Collectivism: Individualistic societies stress independence, individual initiative, and privacy. Collective cultures favour interdependence and loyalty to family or clan.  Long-term/short-term orientation: Cultures with a long- term orientation tend to stress persistence, perseverance, thrifts, and close attention to status differences. Cultures with short-term orientation stress personal steadiness and stability, face-saving, and social niceties. Different organizational behavior theories, research and practices must not translate well into other societies. The answers usually differ. An appreciation of cross-cultural differences in values is essential to understanding the needs and tastes of customers or clients around the world. Attitude: A fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person or category of people. Attitudes are tendencies to respond to the target of the attitude. Thus, attitudes often influence our behavior toward some object, situation, person, or group. Attitude  Behavior Behavior is most likely to correspond to attitudes when people have direct experience with the target of the attitude and when the attitude is held confidently. Attitudes are a function of what we think and what we feel. Belief + Value => Attitude  Behavior Job Satisfaction: A collection of attitudes that workers have about their job. A popular measure of job satisfaction is the Job Descriptive Index (JDI). It’s a questionnaire that is designed around five facets of satisfaction. Another measure of satisfaction is the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). Respondents indicate how happy they are with various aspects of their job on a scale. Factors that determine job satisfaction:  Discrepancy: Discrepancy Theory: A theory that job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between the job outcomes wanted and the outcomes that are perceived to be obtained. Associated beliefs and values cause the differences in job satisfaction.  Fairness: Performance is judged only on what you create by your n products, o Distributive Fairness (or distributive justice): Fairness that occurs when people receive the outcomes they think they deserve from their jobs – it involves the ultimate distribution of work rewards and resources Equity theory: a theory that job satisfaction stems from a comparison of the inputs one invests in a job and the outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs and outcomes of another person or group. My outcomes / My Inputs = Other’s outcomes / Other’s inputs Inputs: Anything that people give up, offer, or trade to their organization in exchange for outcomes. Outcomes: Factors that an organizat
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