Cognition (txtbook) chapter 1-6 notes.docx

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23 Apr 2012
Chapter 1
Cognitive psychology: the action/faculty of knowing.
o Low level processing: sensory information, little to no analysis (e.g.
Hot, cold, red, green).
o High level processing: Making sense of information.
o Thesis: A statement (ex. “Everything about humans is predetermined
at birth.”)
o Antithesis: An opposing statement (ex. “Everything about humans is a
product of their environment.”)
o Synthesis: The mediated view (ex. “Humans are affect both by
predetermined factors at birth and as a result of their environments.”)
o Major names: Plato, Descartes
o “The truth about the world is within your head.”
o Major names: Aristotle, Locke
o “The truth about the worlds lies within the world.”
o Major names: Wundt
o Understanding behavior by understanding the structures of the brain
o Understanding behavior by understanding mental processes.
o Major names: Ebbinghaus and Locke
o Mental processes operate by the association of one state with a
successor state.
o Major names: Watson and Skinner
o All behavior arises as a result of reward and punishment
(action/reaction). Behaviors that lead to a more pleasing state of
affairs is more likely to occur than a behavior that leads to an
annoying state of affairs.
Positive reinforcement: You do well on a test and you are given
money for it.
Negative reinforcement: You have a headache, you take Advil,
and your headache goes away. You take Advil whenever you
have a headache as a result.
Positive punishment: You are speeding in the car and you are
given a ticket.
Negative punishment: You were speeding, and so your parents
take away your car keys
o Issues with behaviorism:
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Bandura’s studies of vicarious learning: there is no personal
reward or punishment involved with observing the actions and
consequences of something else, but you still learn
Gestalt principles: sometimes the whole is more than the sum
of its parts, you can’t break it up into such simplistic
Noam Chomsky: language acquisition in children. How can
they formulate sentences of their own if behaviorism is true?
Information Processing Models
o Input Mental transfer Output
o Perceptual cycle: Schema Exploration Object Modifies Schema
o Broadbent’s Filter Model
All information goes into short-term memory, and then
selected information is filtered into consciousness. Broadbent
posited that attention has limited capacity and thus must filter
out some of the information it is presented with.
The stimulus uncertainty rule: the more uncertain (novel) a
stimulus is, the longer it’ll take to respond to it (thus, stimulus
uncertainty correlates with an increase in reaction time.)
Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience
Cognitive neuroscience is concerned with brain mechanisms that give rise to
behavior. It is an interdisciplinary field (biology, psychology, neurochemistry,
Phrenology: Measuring the cranium to get insights on the structures of the
brain. It’s proved irrelevant; it’s an “old-school” way of thinking. Franz Joseph
Gall believed in it.
Karl Lashley
o Law of mass action
o Law of equipotentiality: although certain brain areas might have been
specialized for specific functions, any part of the brain housed the
ability to perform any action.
o He saw the brain as a unified whole.
o Major names: Descartes
o Conciliates religion and sciences; states that while the mind and brain
are different, they interact and affect one another via the pineal body.
o The brain is the important structure; the mind is simply a superfluous
byproduct of the brain. Steam engine analogy.
o Mind/brain are two sides of the same coin; they don’t influence one
another but instead work in parallel
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o An experience and its corresponding brain function are the same
Animal Models
o Lesion methods (unethical in humans)
o While there are certain differences across species, there are relative
similarities in large and important structures, which makes animal
research worthwhile.
Behavioral Studies
o Almost always involves observing behavioral differences in healthy
controls and patients with brain damage.
Broca’s aphasia: an inability to produce speech, due to an
injury to Broca’s area
Wernicke’s aphasia: an inability to comprehend speech, due to
an injury to Wernicke’s area.
Roger Sperry
o Emergent property emergent causation supervenience
emergent property
Imaging Techniques
o Event Related Potential (ERP): Brain activity is measure via electrodes
on the scalp, and the electrical activity of the brain is measured before
and after exposure to a stimulus.
o Positron Emission Tomography (PET): Injection of radioactive liquid
into the carotid artery; shows metabolic activity in areas of the brain.
o Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): tracks flow of
oxygenated blood in the brain.
o Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): Interrupts/stimulates a
specific brain area using magnetic stimulation.
o Multi-unit/Single Neuron Measuring: Traces one or more individual
neurons, extremely invasive.
Connectionist Models/Connectionism
o Knowledge is links between neurons
o Neural Networks
When you learn, you strengthen links
Hebb’s rule: Neurons that fire together wire together
o Simultaneous firing: Parallel Distributed Processing
o Serial Processing: one at a time
Chapter 3: Perception
o Hoffding function: when an experience makes contact with a memory.
o How?
Feature detection
Template matching
o Feature detection theory; preattentive and bottom up.
Recognition by components (geons)
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