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Chapter 1

FSN 707 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Concept Map, Multiple Dispatch, Positivism


Department
Fashion
Course Code
FSN 707
Professor
Sandra Tullio Pow
Chapter
1

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 11 pages of the document.
Chapter 1 (Gray & Malins)
Planning the journey: introduction to research in Art and Design
1.2 The Research Process - What? Why? How? So What?
Research is a process of accessible disciplined inquiry.
It is essentially generic but should be framed and customized by a
particular discipline and subject area.
§
Simple questions:
What? - the identification of a 'hunch' or tentative research
proposition, leading eventually to a defined and viable research
question.
§
Why? - the need for your research in relation to the wider context,
in order to test out the value of your proposition, locate your
research position, and explore a range of research strategies.
§
How? - the importance of developing an appropriate methodology
and specific methods for gathering and generating information
relevant to your research question, and evaluating, analysing and
interpreting research evidence.
§
So What? - challenges you to think about the significance and value
of your research contribution, not only to your practice but to the
wider research context, and how this is best communicated and
disseminated.
§
Key Stages of the Process:
These stages can be revisited several times, and usually some are
concurrent with others.
§
Stages 1-5 are preliminary stages that are extremely important in
'planning your journey' and beginning to identify and formulate a
research question and a suitable research strategy.
§
It is crucial to have some idea of where you want to go and why.
§
Take advantage of the knowledge of explorers who have visited
similar areas. Research is a journey of exploration through which
individuals can make small but significant contributions to
understanding the landscape of research in Art and Design.
§
Literature Review - survey and evaluation.
§
Contextual Review - all kinds of information in different media in the
public domain.
§
Stage 1: What might you research?
Ideas can emerge from a vague but nagging hunch, a personal
dissatisfaction, or some other issue within creative practices
identified by the practitioner.
There may be a professional stimulus to which the
practitioner must respond creatively in order to survive and
thrive. (ex. New approaches to practice in response to
cultural, social economic, or environmental challenges.)
The "what?" should come from a genuine desire to find
something out, or else it is unlikely that the study or the
enthusiasm for it will be sustained.
§
Stage 2: Why is your research needed?
Consider whether your idea could be developed into a viable
research topic that needs researching.
Is there a wider need for research and can this be confirmed?
§
Stage 3:
Make an initial sketch for information that supports your
hunch (research proposition), and ideally suggests that
research is required.
It is important to get feedback on this from others.
Gather some background information on your research
proposition and its ethical implications.
§
Stage 4:
If there is no apparent external rationale for your research,
then it could be considered too much of an indulgent and
idiosyncratic idea for a research project.
YOU SHOULD STOP NOW!
§
Stage 5:
You could refocus your initial proposal in response to what
you have so far discovered.
You may have identified research that is similar, or even
identical, to what you are proposing. In this case, there is no
point in reinventing the wheel.
§
Stage 6: Mapping the terrain
The contextual survey and review is an essential process for
several reasons:
By surveying the context in which you are working, you
increase your understanding of it in a general sense
(both historically and in contemporary terms).
®
You are selecting which particular pieces of information
relate directly to your research area and can evaluate
them critically for relevance and significance.
®
'Gaps' in knowledge can be identified, which help to
focus your research question, and confirm that you are
not likely to reinvent the wheel.
®
The stage of survey and review help you gain an
understanding of your research context by 'mapping the
terrain'.
§
Stage 7: Locating your position
Identify a viable research question in relation to what you
have discovered through the Contextual Review.
The research question can then be used to develop a realistic
plan of work with an aim, objective, rationale, methodology,
projected outcomes and outputs.
Most research questions will raise some ethical issues. These
should be considered in relation to the design of the research
project.
§
Stage 8: How might you do research?
Consider the methods and methodology you will use. This
depends on the terrain.
It is important to consider initially a wide range of options, to
examine some useful examples, and perhaps try a few out (as
a pilot study).
You might adopt a methodology in which your practice, or
aspects of it, may play a role in the investigation. You might
need to use several methods (a multi-method strategy) to
address your research question. This is a kind of triangulation
of methods.
This stage might require you to test out the ground before
venturing onto it, to retrace your steps, to use more than one
vehicle, to go off in different directions, to explore more, to
collect a range of data in order to begin to provide enough
evidence to be in a position to address your research
question.
It is important to document your whole journey - you might
keep a reflective journal to record your progress. It is
important to carefully organize and manage the information
you amass so none is lost on the way.
§
Stage 9: Interpreting the map through evaluation and analysis
The material you have gathered in crossing the terrain
provide evidence for questioning and substantiating your
research proposition.
Keeping an open mind, you need to reflect on your
experiences and the collected information.
You need to evaluate and select - what is valuable, relevant,
significant, and what isn't.
Sieve the material using criteria derived from your research
objective.
Play with the data, visualizing possibilities, and making
creative connections.
Take things apart to understand them and then put them
back together, perhaps in a different way, in order to make
sense and develop meaning.
From this analysis, you should arrive at an interpretation of
your research evidence.
§
Stage 10: So What?
At this stage, you should be able to make a conclusion about
what you have discovered and its value and significance to
the wider research context.
You should be able to demonstrate a critical evaluation of
your research context and show that you have an
understanding of methodological issues.
Your findings need to be accessible and presented in a variety
of imaginative ways.
The thesis - your argument - may comprise of several
complementary but coherent elements (ex. a body of work,
written text, other supporting material in various formats.)
§
Art and Design should…:
Be required and relevant
Have clear external, professional, and personal rationales for
the need for the research.
§
Be intentional
It is envisioned proposed, prepared for, strategically planned
and focused.
§
Be disciplined
Be rigorous, critical and ordered (but not necessarily
systematic in the scientific sense) - it is a structure
investigation.
§
Develop a research approach which acknowledge practice as:
An initiator of the research questions, which are usually
complex and messy.
Providing the context for the research.
Playing a part in the research methodology and in developing
innovative and creative, but nonetheless rigorous, research
methods.
Imaginatively making visible/tangible research findings.
§
Be revelatory
Contributing alternative and/or new perspective and insights.
§
Be public
The whole process and its outcomes are open to scrutiny and
possible future use by others.
§
Reflection and action: suggestions
The research process is described as 'iterative'.
§
Make your own visualizations of the key stages using cyclical/helical
structure, or some other structure relevant to your preferred
learning style.
§
1.3 A Route Map: The Importance of Methodology
"Use your methodology to discipline your passion, not to deaden it" -
Rose, 2001, p.4
Method
A way of proceeding or doing something, especially a systematic or
regular one.
§
Orderliness of though, action, etc.
§
(Often plural) The techniques or arrangement of work for a
particular field or subject.
§
Specific techniques and tools for exploiting, gathering and analysing
information
For example: observation, drawing, concept mapping,
photography, video, audio, case study, visual diary, models,
interviews, surveys, etc.
§
Methodology
The study of the system of methods and principles used in a
particular discipline.
§
The comparative study of method presumes that some methods
exist, but methodology implies no choice among existing methods.
§
Can lead researchers to develop and apply new methods.
§
Help us understand, in the broadest possible terms, not the
products of inquiry, but the process itself.
§
Paradigms of inquiry
According to Guba (1990), the choice of methodology should be a
consequence of ontology and epistemology - that is, methodology is
evolved in awareness of what the researcher considers 'knowable'
(what can be researched, what is an appropriate research question)
§
Research positions in Art and Design
With regard to epistemological issues, the practitioner is the
researcher - identifying researchable problems raised in practice
and respond through aspects of practice.
§
The role is multifaceted, sometimes it is:
A generator of the research material - art/design works, and
participant in the creative process.
A self-observer through reflection on action and in action, and
through discussion with others.
An observer of others for placing the research in context, and
gaining other perspectives.
A co-researcher, facilitator and research manager, especially
of a collaborative project.
§
The role of 'practitioner-researcher', subjectivity, involvement,
reflexivity is acknowledged.
§
The interaction of the researcher with the research material is
recognized.
§
Methodology is responsive, driven by the requirements of practice
and its creative dynamic.
§
1.4 The 'Reflective Practitioner'
Reflective practice
The 'reflective practitioner', 'reflective practice' and 'reflection in
action' are important concepts for artists and designers engaging in
research.
§
Reflective practice attempts to unite research and practice, thought
and action into a framework for inquiry which involves practice, and
which acknowledges the particular and special knowledge of the
practitioner.
§
Retrospective reflection - 'reflection in action' - is a critical research
skill and part of the generic research process of review, evaluation
and analysis. It involves thinking about what we are doing and
reshaping action while we are doing it.
§
Reflexivity is an important concept in the development of post-
positivistic research methodologies, especially constructivist ones -
we understand and become aware of our research activities as
telling ourselves a story about ourselves.
§
The practitioner-researcher
Someone who holds down a job in some particular area and at the
same time, carries out…inquiry which is of relevance to the job.
§
The advantages of the practitioner-research role are compelling:
your 'insider' knowledge, experience and status usually lends your
research credibility and trustworthiness in the eyes of your peers,
that is, you are not an 'external' researcher.
§
You are inquiring as a reflective practitioner, acknowledging the
complexity, dynamism and unpredictability of the real world.
§
To look at one's own creative practice means taking on both a
creative and a reflective role, in a sense creating a new research
model, which may use other models but will inevitably have its own
distinct identity.
§
1.5 Completed Research For Higher Degrees: Methodological Approaches
Practice-based research is uniquely placed to respond to these criticisms,
through asking questions of ourselves about the place and value of Art
and Design in society and encouraging an intellectual social dialogue;
through clear and critical thinking and expression; through the
articulation of a paradigm, in order to make 'new culture' and gain the
understanding and support of society for this.
Describing the elephant
Practice-based research is like an elephant - a large, complex thing,
with many different and intriguing parts, textures, structures and
movement.
§
Naturalistic inquiry - places the researcher firmly within the
research process, often as 'participant'.
§
Contemporary science - chaos and complexity theory
acknowledging unpredictable and messy realities.
§
Culture - mass media, visuality, bricolage.
§
Philosophy - difference, 'the other'.
§
Contemporary technological advances - interactivity, collaborative
networks.
§
Research approaches now can be much more pro-active, involving
practitioners researching through creative 'action' and 'reflecting in
and on action'.
§
Emerging key characteristics of research methodologies in Art and Design
Experience/exploring, gathering, documenting information and
generating data/evidence.
§
Reflecting on and evaluating information, selecting the most
relevant information.
§
Analysing, interpreting and making sense of information.
§
Synthesizing and communicating research findings, planning new
research.
§
Methods
Making art/design/creative work through specific project
frameworks or as a body of work exploring the research
questions - supplemented by:
Observation and related notation/use of symbols
®
Visualization - drawing (in all forms), diagrams
®
Concept mapping, mind mapping
®
Brainstorming/lateral thinking
®
Sketchbook/notebook
®
Photography, video, audio
®
3d models/maquettes
®
Experimentation with materials and processes
®
Modelling/simulations
®
Multimedia/hypermedia applications
®
Digital databases, visual and textual glossaries and
archives
®
Reflection-in-action/stream of consciousness/personal
narrative
®
Visual diary/reflective journal/research diary
®
Collaboration/participation/feedback, for example,
workshops
®
Use of metaphor and analogy
®
Organizational and analytical matrices
®
Decision-making flow charts
®
Story boards, visual narratives
®
Curation
®
Critical writing, publications
®
Exposition and peer feedback/review
®
Social Science methods, usually adapted and/or re-
contextualized in some way:
Interviews, questionnaires, surveys (seeking the
opinions of others)
®
Case study - in-depth study of relevant examples
®
Participant-observation - researcher as
participant/collaborator in the research
®
Personal construct methods - making sense of ourselves
in our world(s)
®
Evaluative techniques, for ample sematic differential,
multiple sorting
®
Soft system methods
®
§
The use of multiple methods
The use of two or more methods of gathering information is called
triangulation.
§
Triangulation is particularly useful in helping map the terrain and
locate our position
§
Get a 'fix' on something in order to understand more fully the
complexity of issues by examining them from different perspectives,
and by generating data in different ways by different methods.
§
The different views either corroborate or refute our original
proposition or hunch, thus making our research more rigorous and
robust.
§
WEEK 1 -Readings -Gray & Malins
Sunday, September 9, 2018
2:35 PM

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Chapter 1 (Gray & Malins)
Planning the journey: introduction to research in Art and Design
1.2 The Research Process - What? Why? How? So What?
Research is a process of accessible disciplined inquiry.
It is essentially generic but should be framed and customized by a
particular discipline and subject area.
§
Simple questions:
What? - the identification of a 'hunch' or tentative research
proposition, leading eventually to a defined and viable research
question.
§
Why? - the need for your research in relation to the wider context,
in order to test out the value of your proposition, locate your
research position, and explore a range of research strategies.
§
How? - the importance of developing an appropriate methodology
and specific methods for gathering and generating information
relevant to your research question, and evaluating, analysing and
interpreting research evidence.
§
So What? - challenges you to think about the significance and value
of your research contribution, not only to your practice but to the
wider research context, and how this is best communicated and
disseminated.
§
Key Stages of the Process:
These stages can be revisited several times, and usually some are
concurrent with others.
§
Stages 1-5 are preliminary stages that are extremely important in
'planning your journey' and beginning to identify and formulate a
research question and a suitable research strategy.
§
It is crucial to have some idea of where you want to go and why.
§
Take advantage of the knowledge of explorers who have visited
similar areas. Research is a journey of exploration through which
individuals can make small but significant contributions to
understanding the landscape of research in Art and Design.
§
Literature Review - survey and evaluation.
§
Contextual Review - all kinds of information in different media in the
public domain.
§
Stage 1: What might you research?
§
Stage 2: Why is your research needed?
§
Stage 3:
§
Stage 4:
§
Stage 5:
§
Stage 6: Mapping the terrain
The contextual survey and review is an essential process for
several reasons:
By surveying the context in which you are working, you
increase your understanding of it in a general sense
(both historically and in contemporary terms).
®
You are selecting which particular pieces of information
relate directly to your research area and can evaluate
them critically for relevance and significance.
®
'Gaps' in knowledge can be identified, which help to
focus your research question, and confirm that you are
not likely to reinvent the wheel.
®
The stage of survey and review help you gain an
understanding of your research context by 'mapping the
terrain'.
§
Stage 7: Locating your position
Identify a viable research question in relation to what you
have discovered through the Contextual Review.
The research question can then be used to develop a realistic
plan of work with an aim, objective, rationale, methodology,
projected outcomes and outputs.
Most research questions will raise some ethical issues. These
should be considered in relation to the design of the research
project.
§
Stage 8: How might you do research?
Consider the methods and methodology you will use. This
depends on the terrain.
It is important to consider initially a wide range of options, to
examine some useful examples, and perhaps try a few out (as
a pilot study).
You might adopt a methodology in which your practice, or
aspects of it, may play a role in the investigation. You might
need to use several methods (a multi-method strategy) to
address your research question. This is a kind of triangulation
of methods.
This stage might require you to test out the ground before
venturing onto it, to retrace your steps, to use more than one
vehicle, to go off in different directions, to explore more, to
collect a range of data in order to begin to provide enough
evidence to be in a position to address your research
question.
It is important to document your whole journey - you might
keep a reflective journal to record your progress. It is
important to carefully organize and manage the information
you amass so none is lost on the way.
§
Stage 9: Interpreting the map through evaluation and analysis
The material you have gathered in crossing the terrain
provide evidence for questioning and substantiating your
research proposition.
Keeping an open mind, you need to reflect on your
experiences and the collected information.
You need to evaluate and select - what is valuable, relevant,
significant, and what isn't.
Sieve the material using criteria derived from your research
objective.
Play with the data, visualizing possibilities, and making
creative connections.
Take things apart to understand them and then put them
back together, perhaps in a different way, in order to make
sense and develop meaning.
From this analysis, you should arrive at an interpretation of
your research evidence.
§
Stage 10: So What?
At this stage, you should be able to make a conclusion about
what you have discovered and its value and significance to
the wider research context.
You should be able to demonstrate a critical evaluation of
your research context and show that you have an
understanding of methodological issues.
Your findings need to be accessible and presented in a variety
of imaginative ways.
The thesis - your argument - may comprise of several
complementary but coherent elements (ex. a body of work,
written text, other supporting material in various formats.)
§
Art and Design should…:
Be required and relevant
Have clear external, professional, and personal rationales for
the need for the research.
§
Be intentional
It is envisioned proposed, prepared for, strategically planned
and focused.
§
Be disciplined
Be rigorous, critical and ordered (but not necessarily
systematic in the scientific sense) - it is a structure
investigation.
§
Develop a research approach which acknowledge practice as:
An initiator of the research questions, which are usually
complex and messy.
Providing the context for the research.
Playing a part in the research methodology and in developing
innovative and creative, but nonetheless rigorous, research
methods.
Imaginatively making visible/tangible research findings.
§
Be revelatory
Contributing alternative and/or new perspective and insights.
§
Be public
The whole process and its outcomes are open to scrutiny and
possible future use by others.
§
Reflection and action: suggestions
The research process is described as 'iterative'.
§
Make your own visualizations of the key stages using cyclical/helical
structure, or some other structure relevant to your preferred
learning style.
§
1.3 A Route Map: The Importance of Methodology
"Use your methodology to discipline your passion, not to deaden it" -
Rose, 2001, p.4
Method
A way of proceeding or doing something, especially a systematic or
regular one.
§
Orderliness of though, action, etc.
§
(Often plural) The techniques or arrangement of work for a
particular field or subject.
§
Specific techniques and tools for exploiting, gathering and analysing
information
For example: observation, drawing, concept mapping,
photography, video, audio, case study, visual diary, models,
interviews, surveys, etc.
§
Methodology
The study of the system of methods and principles used in a
particular discipline.
§
The comparative study of method presumes that some methods
exist, but methodology implies no choice among existing methods.
§
Can lead researchers to develop and apply new methods.
§
Help us understand, in the broadest possible terms, not the
products of inquiry, but the process itself.
§
Paradigms of inquiry
According to Guba (1990), the choice of methodology should be a
consequence of ontology and epistemology - that is, methodology is
evolved in awareness of what the researcher considers 'knowable'
(what can be researched, what is an appropriate research question)
§
Research positions in Art and Design
With regard to epistemological issues, the practitioner is the
researcher - identifying researchable problems raised in practice
and respond through aspects of practice.
§
The role is multifaceted, sometimes it is:
A generator of the research material - art/design works, and
participant in the creative process.
A self-observer through reflection on action and in action, and
through discussion with others.
An observer of others for placing the research in context, and
gaining other perspectives.
A co-researcher, facilitator and research manager, especially
of a collaborative project.
§
The role of 'practitioner-researcher', subjectivity, involvement,
reflexivity is acknowledged.
§
The interaction of the researcher with the research material is
recognized.
§
Methodology is responsive, driven by the requirements of practice
and its creative dynamic.
§
1.4 The 'Reflective Practitioner'
Reflective practice
The 'reflective practitioner', 'reflective practice' and 'reflection in
action' are important concepts for artists and designers engaging in
research.
§
Reflective practice attempts to unite research and practice, thought
and action into a framework for inquiry which involves practice, and
which acknowledges the particular and special knowledge of the
practitioner.
§
Retrospective reflection - 'reflection in action' - is a critical research
skill and part of the generic research process of review, evaluation
and analysis. It involves thinking about what we are doing and
reshaping action while we are doing it.
§
Reflexivity is an important concept in the development of post-
positivistic research methodologies, especially constructivist ones -
we understand and become aware of our research activities as
telling ourselves a story about ourselves.
§
The practitioner-researcher
Someone who holds down a job in some particular area and at the
same time, carries out…inquiry which is of relevance to the job.
§
The advantages of the practitioner-research role are compelling:
your 'insider' knowledge, experience and status usually lends your
research credibility and trustworthiness in the eyes of your peers,
that is, you are not an 'external' researcher.
§
You are inquiring as a reflective practitioner, acknowledging the
complexity, dynamism and unpredictability of the real world.
§
To look at one's own creative practice means taking on both a
creative and a reflective role, in a sense creating a new research
model, which may use other models but will inevitably have its own
distinct identity.
§
1.5 Completed Research For Higher Degrees: Methodological Approaches
Practice-based research is uniquely placed to respond to these criticisms,
through asking questions of ourselves about the place and value of Art
and Design in society and encouraging an intellectual social dialogue;
through clear and critical thinking and expression; through the
articulation of a paradigm, in order to make 'new culture' and gain the
understanding and support of society for this.
Describing the elephant
Practice-based research is like an elephant - a large, complex thing,
with many different and intriguing parts, textures, structures and
movement.
§
Naturalistic inquiry - places the researcher firmly within the
research process, often as 'participant'.
§
Contemporary science - chaos and complexity theory
acknowledging unpredictable and messy realities.
§
Culture - mass media, visuality, bricolage.
§
Philosophy - difference, 'the other'.
§
Contemporary technological advances - interactivity, collaborative
networks.
§
Research approaches now can be much more pro-active, involving
practitioners researching through creative 'action' and 'reflecting in
and on action'.
§
Emerging key characteristics of research methodologies in Art and Design
Experience/exploring, gathering, documenting information and
generating data/evidence.
§
Reflecting on and evaluating information, selecting the most
relevant information.
§
Analysing, interpreting and making sense of information.
§
Synthesizing and communicating research findings, planning new
research.
§
Methods
Making art/design/creative work through specific project
frameworks or as a body of work exploring the research
questions - supplemented by:
Observation and related notation/use of symbols
®
Visualization - drawing (in all forms), diagrams
®
Concept mapping, mind mapping
®
Brainstorming/lateral thinking
®
Sketchbook/notebook
®
Photography, video, audio
®
3d models/maquettes
®
Experimentation with materials and processes
®
Modelling/simulations
®
Multimedia/hypermedia applications
®
Digital databases, visual and textual glossaries and
archives
®
Reflection-in-action/stream of consciousness/personal
narrative
®
Visual diary/reflective journal/research diary
®
Collaboration/participation/feedback, for example,
workshops
®
Use of metaphor and analogy
®
Organizational and analytical matrices
®
Decision-making flow charts
®
Story boards, visual narratives
®
Curation
®
Critical writing, publications
®
Exposition and peer feedback/review
®
Social Science methods, usually adapted and/or re-
contextualized in some way:
Interviews, questionnaires, surveys (seeking the
opinions of others)
®
Case study - in-depth study of relevant examples
®
Participant-observation - researcher as
participant/collaborator in the research
®
Personal construct methods - making sense of ourselves
in our world(s)
®
Evaluative techniques, for ample sematic differential,
multiple sorting
®
Soft system methods
®
§
The use of multiple methods
The use of two or more methods of gathering information is called
triangulation.
§
Triangulation is particularly useful in helping map the terrain and
locate our position
§
Get a 'fix' on something in order to understand more fully the
complexity of issues by examining them from different perspectives,
and by generating data in different ways by different methods.
§
The different views either corroborate or refute our original
proposition or hunch, thus making our research more rigorous and
robust.
§
WEEK 1 -Readings -Gray & Malins
Sunday, September 9, 2018 2:35 PM

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Chapter 1 (Gray & Malins)
Planning the journey: introduction to research in Art and Design
1.2 The Research Process - What? Why? How? So What?
Research is a process of accessible disciplined inquiry.
It is essentially generic but should be framed and customized by a
particular discipline and subject area.
§
Simple questions:
What? - the identification of a 'hunch' or tentative research
proposition, leading eventually to a defined and viable research
question.
§
Why? - the need for your research in relation to the wider context,
in order to test out the value of your proposition, locate your
research position, and explore a range of research strategies.
§
How? - the importance of developing an appropriate methodology
and specific methods for gathering and generating information
relevant to your research question, and evaluating, analysing and
interpreting research evidence.
§
So What? - challenges you to think about the significance and value
of your research contribution, not only to your practice but to the
wider research context, and how this is best communicated and
disseminated.
§
Key Stages of the Process:
These stages can be revisited several times, and usually some are
concurrent with others.
§
Stages 1-5 are preliminary stages that are extremely important in
'planning your journey' and beginning to identify and formulate a
research question and a suitable research strategy.
§
It is crucial to have some idea of where you want to go and why.
§
Take advantage of the knowledge of explorers who have visited
similar areas. Research is a journey of exploration through which
individuals can make small but significant contributions to
understanding the landscape of research in Art and Design.
§
Literature Review - survey and evaluation.
§
Contextual Review - all kinds of information in different media in the
public domain.
§
Stage 1: What might you research?
Ideas can emerge from a vague but nagging hunch, a personal
dissatisfaction, or some other issue within creative practices
identified by the practitioner.
There may be a professional stimulus to which the
practitioner must respond creatively in order to survive and
thrive. (ex. New approaches to practice in response to
cultural, social economic, or environmental challenges.)
The "what?" should come from a genuine desire to find
something out, or else it is unlikely that the study or the
enthusiasm for it will be sustained.
§
Stage 2: Why is your research needed?
Consider whether your idea could be developed into a viable
research topic that needs researching.
Is there a wider need for research and can this be confirmed?
§
Stage 3:
Make an initial sketch for information that supports your
hunch (research proposition), and ideally suggests that
research is required.
It is important to get feedback on this from others.
Gather some background information on your research
proposition and its ethical implications.
§
Stage 4:
If there is no apparent external rationale for your research,
then it could be considered too much of an indulgent and
idiosyncratic idea for a research project.
YOU SHOULD STOP NOW!
§
Stage 5:
You could refocus your initial proposal in response to what
you have so far discovered.
§
Stage 6: Mapping the terrain
By surveying the context in which you are working, you
increase your understanding of it in a general sense
(both historically and in contemporary terms).
®
You are selecting which particular pieces of information
relate directly to your research area and can evaluate
them critically for relevance and significance.
®
'Gaps' in knowledge can be identified, which help to
focus your research question, and confirm that you are
not likely to reinvent the wheel.
®
§
Stage 7: Locating your position
§
Stage 8: How might you do research?
It is important to document your whole journey - you might
keep a reflective journal to record your progress. It is
important to carefully organize and manage the information
you amass so none is lost on the way.
§
Stage 9: Interpreting the map through evaluation and analysis
The material you have gathered in crossing the terrain
provide evidence for questioning and substantiating your
research proposition.
Keeping an open mind, you need to reflect on your
experiences and the collected information.
You need to evaluate and select - what is valuable, relevant,
significant, and what isn't.
Sieve the material using criteria derived from your research
objective.
Play with the data, visualizing possibilities, and making
creative connections.
Take things apart to understand them and then put them
back together, perhaps in a different way, in order to make
sense and develop meaning.
From this analysis, you should arrive at an interpretation of
your research evidence.
§
Stage 10: So What?
At this stage, you should be able to make a conclusion about
what you have discovered and its value and significance to
the wider research context.
You should be able to demonstrate a critical evaluation of
your research context and show that you have an
understanding of methodological issues.
Your findings need to be accessible and presented in a variety
of imaginative ways.
The thesis - your argument - may comprise of several
complementary but coherent elements (ex. a body of work,
written text, other supporting material in various formats.)
§
Art and Design should…:
Be required and relevant
Have clear external, professional, and personal rationales for
the need for the research.
§
Be intentional
It is envisioned proposed, prepared for, strategically planned
and focused.
§
Be disciplined
Be rigorous, critical and ordered (but not necessarily
systematic in the scientific sense) - it is a structure
investigation.
§
Develop a research approach which acknowledge practice as:
An initiator of the research questions, which are usually
complex and messy.
Providing the context for the research.
Playing a part in the research methodology and in developing
innovative and creative, but nonetheless rigorous, research
methods.
Imaginatively making visible/tangible research findings.
§
Be revelatory
Contributing alternative and/or new perspective and insights.
§
Be public
The whole process and its outcomes are open to scrutiny and
possible future use by others.
§
Reflection and action: suggestions
The research process is described as 'iterative'.
§
Make your own visualizations of the key stages using cyclical/helical
structure, or some other structure relevant to your preferred
learning style.
§
1.3 A Route Map: The Importance of Methodology
"Use your methodology to discipline your passion, not to deaden it" -
Rose, 2001, p.4
Method
A way of proceeding or doing something, especially a systematic or
regular one.
§
Orderliness of though, action, etc.
§
(Often plural) The techniques or arrangement of work for a
particular field or subject.
§
Specific techniques and tools for exploiting, gathering and analysing
information
For example: observation, drawing, concept mapping,
photography, video, audio, case study, visual diary, models,
interviews, surveys, etc.
§
Methodology
The study of the system of methods and principles used in a
particular discipline.
§
The comparative study of method presumes that some methods
exist, but methodology implies no choice among existing methods.
§
Can lead researchers to develop and apply new methods.
§
Help us understand, in the broadest possible terms, not the
products of inquiry, but the process itself.
§
Paradigms of inquiry
According to Guba (1990), the choice of methodology should be a
consequence of ontology and epistemology - that is, methodology is
evolved in awareness of what the researcher considers 'knowable'
(what can be researched, what is an appropriate research question)
§
Research positions in Art and Design
With regard to epistemological issues, the practitioner is the
researcher - identifying researchable problems raised in practice
and respond through aspects of practice.
§
The role is multifaceted, sometimes it is:
A generator of the research material - art/design works, and
participant in the creative process.
A self-observer through reflection on action and in action, and
through discussion with others.
An observer of others for placing the research in context, and
gaining other perspectives.
A co-researcher, facilitator and research manager, especially
of a collaborative project.
§
The role of 'practitioner-researcher', subjectivity, involvement,
reflexivity is acknowledged.
§
The interaction of the researcher with the research material is
recognized.
§
Methodology is responsive, driven by the requirements of practice
and its creative dynamic.
§
1.4 The 'Reflective Practitioner'
Reflective practice
The 'reflective practitioner', 'reflective practice' and 'reflection in
action' are important concepts for artists and designers engaging in
research.
§
Reflective practice attempts to unite research and practice, thought
and action into a framework for inquiry which involves practice, and
which acknowledges the particular and special knowledge of the
practitioner.
§
Retrospective reflection - 'reflection in action' - is a critical research
skill and part of the generic research process of review, evaluation
and analysis. It involves thinking about what we are doing and
reshaping action while we are doing it.
§
Reflexivity is an important concept in the development of post-
positivistic research methodologies, especially constructivist ones -
we understand and become aware of our research activities as
telling ourselves a story about ourselves.
§
The practitioner-researcher
Someone who holds down a job in some particular area and at the
same time, carries out…inquiry which is of relevance to the job.
§
The advantages of the practitioner-research role are compelling:
your 'insider' knowledge, experience and status usually lends your
research credibility and trustworthiness in the eyes of your peers,
that is, you are not an 'external' researcher.
§
You are inquiring as a reflective practitioner, acknowledging the
complexity, dynamism and unpredictability of the real world.
§
To look at one's own creative practice means taking on both a
creative and a reflective role, in a sense creating a new research
model, which may use other models but will inevitably have its own
distinct identity.
§
1.5 Completed Research For Higher Degrees: Methodological Approaches
Practice-based research is uniquely placed to respond to these criticisms,
through asking questions of ourselves about the place and value of Art
and Design in society and encouraging an intellectual social dialogue;
through clear and critical thinking and expression; through the
articulation of a paradigm, in order to make 'new culture' and gain the
understanding and support of society for this.
Describing the elephant
Practice-based research is like an elephant - a large, complex thing,
with many different and intriguing parts, textures, structures and
movement.
§
Naturalistic inquiry - places the researcher firmly within the
research process, often as 'participant'.
§
Contemporary science - chaos and complexity theory
acknowledging unpredictable and messy realities.
§
Culture - mass media, visuality, bricolage.
§
Philosophy - difference, 'the other'.
§
Contemporary technological advances - interactivity, collaborative
networks.
§
Research approaches now can be much more pro-active, involving
practitioners researching through creative 'action' and 'reflecting in
and on action'.
§
Emerging key characteristics of research methodologies in Art and Design
Experience/exploring, gathering, documenting information and
generating data/evidence.
§
Reflecting on and evaluating information, selecting the most
relevant information.
§
Analysing, interpreting and making sense of information.
§
Synthesizing and communicating research findings, planning new
research.
§
Methods
Making art/design/creative work through specific project
frameworks or as a body of work exploring the research
questions - supplemented by:
Observation and related notation/use of symbols
®
Visualization - drawing (in all forms), diagrams
®
Concept mapping, mind mapping
®
Brainstorming/lateral thinking
®
Sketchbook/notebook
®
Photography, video, audio
®
3d models/maquettes
®
Experimentation with materials and processes
®
Modelling/simulations
®
Multimedia/hypermedia applications
®
Digital databases, visual and textual glossaries and
archives
®
Reflection-in-action/stream of consciousness/personal
narrative
®
Visual diary/reflective journal/research diary
®
Collaboration/participation/feedback, for example,
workshops
®
Use of metaphor and analogy
®
Organizational and analytical matrices
®
Decision-making flow charts
®
Story boards, visual narratives
®
Curation
®
Critical writing, publications
®
Exposition and peer feedback/review
®
Social Science methods, usually adapted and/or re-
contextualized in some way:
Interviews, questionnaires, surveys (seeking the
opinions of others)
®
Case study - in-depth study of relevant examples
®
Participant-observation - researcher as
participant/collaborator in the research
®
Personal construct methods - making sense of ourselves
in our world(s)
®
Evaluative techniques, for ample sematic differential,
multiple sorting
®
Soft system methods
®
§
The use of multiple methods
The use of two or more methods of gathering information is called
triangulation.
§
Triangulation is particularly useful in helping map the terrain and
locate our position
§
Get a 'fix' on something in order to understand more fully the
complexity of issues by examining them from different perspectives,
and by generating data in different ways by different methods.
§
The different views either corroborate or refute our original
proposition or hunch, thus making our research more rigorous and
robust.
§
WEEK 1 -Readings -Gray & Malins
Sunday, September 9, 2018 2:35 PM
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