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Chapter 8

Chapter 8

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Ryerson University
Global Management Studies
GMS 200
Sui Sui

Chapter 8 Planning and Controlling Key Study questions for Chapter 8 1. How do managers plan? 2. What types of plans do managers use? 3. What are the useful planning tools and techniques? 4. What is the control process? 5. What are the common organizational controls? Study Question 1: How do managers plan? Planning o The process of setting objectives and determining how to best accomplish them. Objectives o Identify the specific results or desired outcomes that one intends to achieve. Plan o A statement of action steps to be taken in order to accomplish the objectives. Steps in the planning process: o Define your objectives. o Determine where you stand vis- -vis objectives. o Develop premises regarding future conditions. o Analyze and choose among action alternatives. o Implement the plan and evaluate results. Figure 8.1 The roles of planning and controlling in the management process www.notesolution.com Benefits of planning: o Improves focus and flexibility. o Improves action orientation. o Improves coordination. o Improves time management. o Improves control. Figure 8.2 A sample means-ends chain for total quality management Study Question 2: What types of plans do managers use? Short-range and long-range plans o Short-range plans = 1 year or less o Intermediate-range plans = 1 to 2 years o Long-range plans = 3 or more years People vary in their capability to deal effectively with different time horizons. Higher management levels focus on longer time horizons. Strategic and operational plans o Strategic plans set broad, comprehensive, and longer-term action directions for the entire organization. o Operational plans define what needs to be done in specific areas to implement strategic plans. Production plans Financial plans Facilities plans Marketing plans Human resource plans Policies and procedures o Standing plans Policies and procedures that are designed for repeated use. o Policy Broad guidelines for making decisions and taking action in specific circumstances. o Rules or procedures www.notesolution.com
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