Chapter 6

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Information Technology Management
ITM 102
Ross Mc Naughton

CHAPTER 6: DATABASE MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE - Organizational Plumbing: the IT systems designed to support different kinds of knowledge work- gathering and storing data, processing information, and making decisions - The Data-Information-Knowledge Continuum: • Data: raw unorganized facts, numbers, pictures, and so on • Information: data that have been organized and are useful to a person • Knowledge: a person combines experience and judgement with information (create value to organizations) • Wisdom: adds insights and ethics to the experience and professional judgement inherent in knowledge (enables leaders to perceive the underlying meaning and nuances of a business situation and ensures that knowledge from relevant perspectives, disciplines, and sources is considered in the final decision) - Lifelong Knowledge Creation • Explicit knowledge: knowledge that is readily codified, such as the knowledge in this textbook • Tacit Knowledge: knowledge gain through experience, insight, and discovery - Knowledge Work Activities • Knowledge Work: involves the discovery, analysis, transformation, synthesis, and communication of data, information, and knowledge • Work Flows: the steps you went through • Work Product: the outcome - Discovery: Finding Data, Information, or Knowledge (page 208) • Discovery: Finding of data, information, and knowledge relevant to a task, problem, issue, or opportunity (the context) • Managers’ Request: find our company’s and our competitors’ weekly sales data • Helpful IT tools ad Activities: use data from check-out/ point-of-sale (POS) terminals, search tools (ex: Google) and web searching - Analysis: Investigating and examining the available data, information and knowledge • Breaking down the whole into its more discrete pats to better understand how it works • Processnapping: if you are analyzing a business process • Quality assurance: if you are analyzing product quality • Performance Testing: if you are assessing fitness or standards • Data warehouses and data mining are two information technologies that can help answer questions about underlying patterns and correlations across large amounts of data • Manager’s Request: Compare the sales data for the first week of May to similar data from our company for the previous two months • Helpful IT Tools and Activities: Import the data into a database or spreadsheet application, and use its features and tools to organize the data - Transformation: Organizing Discovery Results • Transformations: knowledge work that requires you to use the results of your analysis to deepen your understanding of the data and information • Manager’s Request: Identify any trends in the data by week, month, and day of the week. Indicate how our company’s results compare with our competition and with the industry as a whole • Help IT Tools and Activities: Use the data analysis tools in the spreadsheet application to examine the data from different aspects - Synthesis: The Sum of the Parts • Allows you to interpret trends or patterns that seem to explain the past and the present, and may suggest courses of action likely to favourably influence the future • Manager’s Request: Given your analysis of our company’s relative successor failure, suggest ways to capitalize on our strengths an overcome our weaknesses • Helpful IT tools and activities: with analysis in mind, obtain feedback about specific company products and services - Communications: Sharing Analysis with Others • The ability to hare your analyses, ideas, and solutions with others (email, PowerPoint, or instant messaging) • Manager’s Request: Present your findings and suggestions to management • Helpful IT Tools and Activities: import your spreadsheet data into presentation software - Databases: The Primary Data Storage for Organizations (page 214) • Database: the primary technology used to store, manage and allow efficient accessto data • Consist of interrelated data that are stored in files and organized so that computer programs can quickly and easily accessspecific pieces of data • Database Management System (DBMS): a collection of software that allows users to create and work with a database (used to obtain and print a customers’ monthly bank statement) • Database System: a data and a DBMS • Database Administrators (DBA): people who create and manage the database use the tools in the DBMS to do their work - The Data Hierarchy (pate 215) • To organize data in a database • Organizes stored data in increasing levels of complexity • Lowest level: the data hierarchy stores all data using electronic bits that an be 1 (on) or 0 (off) • Data Character: a specific combination of bits • Ex: ASCII encoding scheme: use 8 bits (one byte) to store a letter of the alphabet • Unicode: store the same letter using 16 bits (two bytes) • Field: combination of characters representing a data item, such as a name or a price • Records: the next higher level of the data hierarchy stores collections of fields (First name, Last Name, Gender, Age) • Table or File: next level up, the data hierarchy assembles records into collection • Top Level: compiles the organized collection of files into a database • Advantages of using the a Database System to organize Data which improves the accuracy of the data stored (data integrity) as well as increase its use: Independent of any one software app which allows all apps to accessthe data in a standard manner Reduces data redundancy Include features for maintaining the quality of the data, handing security, and synchronizing accessby simultaneous users Allows for capabilities such as improved data access, allowing different views of the data for diff users, and repo
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