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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Motivation and Value.docx

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MKT 400
Melanie Dempsey

MKT400 Understanding Customers and the New Media CHAPTER 4 Motivation and Value MOTIVATION  Motivation: processes that cause people to behave as they do o Occurs when a need is aroused that the consumer wishes to satisfy  Need may be utilitarian (desire to achieve some functional or practical benefit) or hedonic (experiential need involving emotional responses or fantasies)  Personal and cultural factors combine to create a want, which is one manifestation of a need  Goal: desired end state  Discrepancy exists between the consumer’s present state and some ideal state that creates tension  Drive: degree to satisfy a biological need to reduce physiological arousal MOTIVATIONAL STRENGTH DRIVE THEORY  Drive theory focuses on biological need that produce unpleasant states of arousal o In marketing, tension refers to unpleasant state that exists if a person’s consumption needs are not fulfilled  Homeostasis: goal-oriented behaviour that attempts to reduce or eliminate unpleasant state and return to balanced one  Degree of motivation depends on distance between present state and the goal EXPECTANCY THEORY  Expectancy theory: behaviour is largely pulled by expectations of achieving desirable outcomes – positive incentives – rather than pushed from within o Choosing one product over another because we expect this choice to have more positive consequences MOTIVATIONAL DIRECTION  Specific way need is satisfied depends on individual’s unique history and learning experiences and his or her cultural environment  Want: particular form of consumption chosen to satisfy a need  Types of needs o Biogenic needs are certain elements necessary to maintain life, such as food, water, air, and shelter o Psychogenic need are acquired in the process of becoming a member of a culture, such as power, status, and affiliation o Utilitarian needs implies emphasis on objective, tangible attributes of products o Hedonic needs are subjective and experiential, leading consumers to reply on a product because it meets their needs for excitement, self-confidence, or fantasy MOTIVATIONAL CONFLICTS  Three general types of conflicts can occur 1. Approach-approach: choice between two desirable alternatives  Theory of cognitive dissonance: based on the premise that people have a need for order and consistency in their lives and that a state of tension is created when beliefs or behaviours conflict with one another  Conflict arises when choosing between two alternatives may be resolved through a process of cognitive dissonance reduction in which people are motivated to reduce inconsistency (or dissonance) and thus eliminate unpleasant tension 2. Approach-avoidance: when desire a goal but wish to avoid it at the same time 3. Avoidance-avoidance: face choice between two undesirable alternatives CLASSIFYING CONSUMER NEEDS  Henry Murray delineates a set of psychogenic needs that (sometimes in combination) result in specific behaviours o Dominance, superiority, emotional stability, achievement, compliance, order, autonomy, affiliation, analysis, dependence, self-depreciation, exhibition, assistance, change, endurance, aggression, defendence, play  Other motivational approaches focus on specific needs and their ramifications for behaviour o Need for affiliation – to be in the company of other people  Relevant to products and services that alleviate loneliness and that are consumed among groups of people at places o Need for power – to control one’s environment MKT400 Understanding Customers and the New Media o Need for uniqueness – to assert one’s individual identity  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs formulates hierarchy of biogenic and psychogenic needs in which levels of motives are specified o Implies that order of development is fixed – that is, a certain level must be attained for the next, higher one is activated o This approach to motivation adopted specifies certain types of product benefits that people might be looking for, depending on different stages in their development and/or their environmental conditions o From lower level to upper level needs: PHYSIOLOGICAL (water, sleep, food) → SAFETY (security, shelter, protection) → BELONGINGNESS (love, friendship, acceptance by others) → EGO NEEDS (prestige, status, accomplishment) → SELF-ACTUALIZATION (self-fulfillment, enriching experiences) o When social needs are more or less satisfied, esteem or ego needs to emerge  Inwardly directed ego needs reflect an individual’s need for self-acceptance, self-achievement, and success  Outwardly directed ego needs include need for prestige, reputation status, and recognition from others o Theory states that satisfaction does not motivate behaviour; dissatisfaction does CONSUMER INVOLVEMENT  Involvement: person’s perceived relevance of the objective based on their inherent needs, values, and interests o Object refers to product or brand, an advertisement, or purchase situation o It is a motivational construct that can be triggered by one or more of the different antecedents, including something about the person, something about the object, or something about the situation  Involvement can be viewed as motivation to process information o To the degree there is a perceived link between consumer’s needs, goals, and values and product knowledge, the consumer will be motivated to pay attention to product information o When relevant knowledge is activated in memory, motivational state is created that drives behaviour LEVELS OF INVOLVEMENT: FROM INERTIA TO PASSION  Consumer level of involvement can range from simple processing, in which only basic features of a message are considered, all the way to elaboration, in which the incoming information is linked to pre-existing knowledge system  Inertia: decisions are made out of habit because the consumer lacks the motivation to consider alternatives o The other end of involvement we can expect to find type of passionate intensity reserved for people and objectives that carry great meaning to the individual  Flow state: when consumers are truly involved with a product, an ad, or a website they enter o Flow is an optimal experience characterized by following:  A sense of playfulness  A feeling of being in control  Concentration and highly focused attention  Mental enjoyment of the activity for its own sake  A distorted sense of time  A match between the challenge at hand and one’s skills  Type of involvement may be emotionally or affectively involved with an object (such as an advertisement), or rationally or cognitively involved with a product or purchase situation, and so on  Cult products: command fierce consumer loyalty, devotion, and maybe even worship by consumers who are very highly involved with a brand THE MANY FACES OF INVOLVEMENT  Involvement is fuzzy concept because it overlaps and means different things to different people; three broad types of involvement: 1. Product involvement – related to consumer’s level of interest in a particular product  Mass customization: customization and personalization of product and services for individual customers at a mass production price 2. Message-response involvement – high or low involvement in processing information and ability to exert control over content  Another tactic is to create spectacles or performances, where the message is itself a form of entertainment MKT400 Understanding Customers and the New Media  Marketing performances: turns public places into advertising stages when they stage events to promote a brand  Interactive mobile marketing: heightens message involvement where consumers participate in real-time promotional campaigns via their cell phones, usually by text messaging entries to on-air TV contests 3. Purchase situation involvement – refers to differences that may occur when buying the same object for different contexts  Person perceives social risk or none at all; what people
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