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Chapter 4

MKT 400 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Cognitive Dissonance, Social Media Marketing, Biogenic Substance

Course Code
MKT 400
Melanie Dempsey

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MKT400 Understanding Customers and the New Media
CHAPTER 4 Motivation and Value
Motivation: processes that cause people to behave as they do
o Occurs when a need is aroused that the consumer wishes to satisfy
Need may be utilitarian (desire to achieve some functional or practical benefit) or hedonic (experiential
need involving emotional responses or fantasies)
Personal and cultural factors combine to create a want, which is one manifestation of a need
Goal: desired end state
Discrepancy exists between the consumer’s present state and some ideal state that creates tension
Drive: degree to satisfy a biological need to reduce physiological arousal
Drive theory focuses on biological need that produce unpleasant states of arousal
o In marketing, tension refers to unpleasant state that exists if a person’s consumption needs are not fulfilled
Homeostasis: goal-oriented behaviour that attempts to reduce or eliminate unpleasant state and return to balanced one
Degree of motivation depends on distance between present state and the goal
Expectancy theory: behaviour is largely pulled by expectations of achieving desirable outcomes positive incentives
rather than pushed from within
o Choosing one product over another because we expect this choice to have more positive consequences
Specific way need is satisfied depends on individual’s unique history and learning experiences and his or her cultural
Want: particular form of consumption chosen to satisfy a need
Types of needs
o Biogenic needs are certain elements necessary to maintain life, such as food, water, air, and shelter
o Psychogenic need are acquired in the process of becoming a member of a culture, such as power, status, and
o Utilitarian needs implies emphasis on objective, tangible attributes of products
o Hedonic needs are subjective and experiential, leading consumers to reply on a product because it meets their
needs for excitement, self-confidence, or fantasy
Three general types of conflicts can occur
1. Approach-approach: choice between two desirable alternatives
Theory of cognitive dissonance: based on the premise that people have a need for order and consistency
in their lives and that a state of tension is created when beliefs or behaviours conflict with one another
Conflict arises when choosing between two alternatives may be resolved through a process of
cognitive dissonance reduction in which people are motivated to reduce inconsistency (or
dissonance) and thus eliminate unpleasant tension
2. Approach-avoidance: when desire a goal but wish to avoid it at the same time
3. Avoidance-avoidance: face choice between two undesirable alternatives
Henry Murray delineates a set of psychogenic needs that (sometimes in combination) result in specific behaviours
o Dominance, superiority, emotional stability, achievement, compliance, order, autonomy, affiliation, analysis,
dependence, self-depreciation, exhibition, assistance, change, endurance, aggression, defendence, play
Other motivational approaches focus on specific needs and their ramifications for behaviour
o Need for affiliation to be in the company of other people
Relevant to products and services that alleviate loneliness and that are consumed among groups of
people at places
o Need for power to control one’s environment
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MKT400 Understanding Customers and the New Media
o Need for uniqueness to assert one’s individual identity
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs formulates hierarchy of biogenic and psychogenic needs in which levels of motives are
o Implies that order of development is fixed that is, a certain level must be attained for the next, higher one is
o This approach to motivation adopted specifies certain types of product benefits that people might be looking for,
depending on different stages in their development and/or their environmental conditions
o From lower level to upper level needs:
PHYSIOLOGICAL (water, sleep, food) → SAFETY (security, shelter, protection) → BELONGINGNESS (love, friendship, acceptance by
others) → EGO NEEDS (prestige, status, accomplishment) → SELF-ACTUALIZATION (self-fulfillment, enriching experiences)
o When social needs are more or less satisfied, esteem or ego needs to emerge
Inwardly directed ego needs reflect an individual’s need for self-acceptance, self-achievement, and
Outwardly directed ego needs include need for prestige, reputation status, and recognition from others
o Theory states that satisfaction does not motivate behaviour; dissatisfaction does
Involvement: person’s perceived relevance of the objective based on their inherent needs, values, and interests
o Object refers to product or brand, an advertisement, or purchase situation
o It is a motivational construct that can be triggered by one or more of the different antecedents, including
something about the person, something about the object, or something about the situation
Involvement can be viewed as motivation to process information
o To the degree there is a perceived link between consumer’s needs, goals, and values and product knowledge, the
consumer will be motivated to pay attention to product information
o When relevant knowledge is activated in memory, motivational state is created that drives behaviour
Consumer level of involvement can range from simple processing, in which only basic features of a message are considered,
all the way to elaboration, in which the incoming information is linked to pre-existing knowledge system
Inertia: decisions are made out of habit because the consumer lacks the motivation to consider alternatives
o The other end of involvement we can expect to find type of passionate intensity reserved for people and objectives
that carry great meaning to the individual
Flow state: when consumers are truly involved with a product, an ad, or a website they enter
o Flow is an optimal experience characterized by following:
A sense of playfulness
A feeling of being in control
Concentration and highly focused attention
Mental enjoyment of the activity for its own sake
A distorted sense of time
A match between the challenge at hand and one’s skills
Type of involvement may be emotionally or affectively involved with an object (such as an advertisement), or rationally or
cognitively involved with a product or purchase situation, and so on
Cult products: command fierce consumer loyalty, devotion, and maybe even worship by consumers who are very highly
involved with a brand
Involvement is fuzzy concept because it overlaps and means different things to different people; three broad types of
1. Product involvement related to consumer’s level of interest in a particular product
Mass customization: customization and personalization of product and services for individual customers
at a mass production price
2. Message-response involvement high or low involvement in processing information and ability to exert control
over content
Another tactic is to create spectacles or performances, where the message is itself a form of
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