Chapter 2 – The GAPS Model of Service Quality
Services marketing involves many different strategies, skills and tasks. One approach is the GAPS Model.
The Customer Gap
Difference between customer expectations and perceptions. Expectations are standards or reference points that
customers bring into the service experience and is what they believe should or will happen, whereas perceptions
are what the customers experience. Any company interested in delivering quality service must understand its
customers. This is easier for small companies but harder for larger ones. Customer expectations source from
pricing, advertising and sales promises as well as uncontrollable sources as personal needs, word of mouth, and
The Provider Gaps
To close the customer gap, four provider gaps need to be closed.
Provider Gap 1: Not Knowing What Customers Expect
This is the difference between customer expectations and understanding them. A cause for not
meeting expectations is the lack of understanding of what the expectations are. This occurs because of
inadequate marketing research, lack of upward communication, and lack of strategies to re