Chapter 2 & 4
- Functionalists and Conflict Theorists are interested in “larger” questions and theories
that are more related to society as a whole. They are an example of macro perspective
- Symbolic Interactionism is a micro perspective where the theorists are interested in
smaller matters. “Face to face encounters”, etc.
- There are two main approaches to social research: quantitative and qualitative
- Qualitative: refers to non-numerical data, small sample of participants, investigates
behaviours and patterns, more expensive to research, more time-consuming, and
involves observations, interviews and surveys. Looks to explain phenomena. Analyzes
data to text
- Quantitative: refers to numerical data, many participants are required, statistical
trends, less expensive to research, less time to conduct research, and usually only
involves surveys to research. Looks to explain phenomena. Reduces data to numbers
- Researchers use two systems of reasoning: inductive logic and deductive logic
- Inductive Logic: involves moving from data to theory, it is when a researcher gathers
information about topic X before developing theories about how to explain particular
aspects of X.
- Deductive Logic: involves moving from theory to data, researchers develop a theory or
set of theories to explain a pattern before actually conducting surveys and such to
- Researchers who use a qualitative approach generally use inductive reasoning whereas
researchers who use a quantitative approach generally use deductive reasoning. This is
not always true
- Sociologists generally use the scientific method to approach their research. It involves a
hypothesis, independent and dependent variables, and a conclusion.
- Neither methods of conducting research have an advantage over another
- Types of data:
o Social Environment
o Opinions and Attitudes
- Survey Designs:
o Cohort - Ethnography refers to the writing of culture
- Ethnographic legacies:
o Harriet Martineau: wanted to study a society that was different from ours, she
went to USA. Interested in people’s attitudes towards democracy and how
capitalism worked differently in America, she went to school and places of work.
Conducted some archival research.
o Erving Goffman “Asylums”
- Socialization is the lifelong process by which we learn our culture, develop our
personalities, and become functioning members of society
- Primary socialization refers to birth to adult
- Secondary socialization refers to when anyone can teach anyone (ex: kid teaching adult)
- Anticipatory socialization refer