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Chapter 2

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 143
Tony Leyland

General principles of physiologic conditioning - Physiologic conditioning refers to a planned program of exercise directed toward improving the functional capacity of a particular bodily system - 4 principles to keep in mind when developing and implementing exercise plan 1) Overload principle 2) Specificity principle 3) Reversibility principle 4) Individual differences principle Overload- adapting to amount of training - The bodies response to all stressors is the same - GAS simply explains that stress disrupts the organism - Organism responds by adapting and in fact enhancing his/her capacity - It is important that the training undertaken is difficult enough to disrupt homeostasis (your body’s resting status), and it must be followed by adequate rest - *Supercompenssation occur only when the TWO conditions are met* - After compensation occurs, fitness level will start to drop again toward the baseline - It is important to train again before it happens - Overload can be accomplished in three ways 1) Increase the intensity of exercise while maintaining duration and frequency 2) Increase the duration of exercise while maintaining intensity and frequency 3) Increase the frequency of exercise while maintaining intensity and duration - In order to ensure continued improvement in physiologic capacity during training, the relative degree of overload must keep pace with the adaptive changes that occur in both physiology and performance - The fitter you become in one fitness component, the harder it will become to improve further The FITTness formula - F is for frequency or “How often?” - I is for intensity or “How hard?” - T is for time or “How long?” - T is for type or “Which activities?” Intensity of training - Training intensity is considered to be the most important factor in determining training effect - There is no established minimum for duration and frequency - All three components that contribute to work volume are important Four most common assessment methods of heart rate monitoring 1) Percentage of maximal heart rate - 220 minus age, and determine a percentage range of the value - Range of 65% - 90% of the (220 – age) - Get the target heart rate range and 10-second target heart rate 2) Heart rate reserve method ( Karvonen fomula) - Exercise range should be 50%-85% - Lower level = bpm + (50% x maximal heart rate – resting heart rate) - Upper level = BPM + (85% x Maximal heart rate – Resting heart rate) - Get target heart rate range and 10-second target heart rate 3) Rate of perceived exertion ( Borg Scale) - Typical heart rate/ 10 = score on RPE 4) Talk Test - If breathing is so labored that you cannot carry on a conversation properly, the exercise intensity is considered too high Swimming - It elicits a lower heart rate per minute - Water reduce the need for the heart to pump a large percentage of the cardiac output to the skin, thus lowering the work of the heart - Calculate maximal heart rate with the formula 205- age rather than 220- age Types of exercise - Important consideration is to raise heart rate to target range and keep it there for at least 15 minutes - The principles of specificity and overload can be combined into the said principle, which stands for specific adaptations to imposed demands - The SAID principles states that the demands of an exercise program must be sufficient to force adaptation, and the adaptations will be specific to the type of exercise performed Specificity- adapting to type of training - The effect of performing exercise to which you have little adaptation will range from early fatigue to being unable to perform the exercise - Experience muscle soreness a day or two afterwards - Muscle soreness, termed delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), can range from mild to extreme Reversibility- adapting to a training reduction - The “use it or lose it” principle - Reversibility of training effects is not even across all components of fitness Most persistent Least Persistent - Significant loss of cardiovascular endurance can occur in a number of days whereas the significant decay or added muscle mass may taken many weeks or months upon cessation of training - Building contractile proteins in the muscle is a hard process for the body and once you have built up a large muscle mass it will be persistent Individual differences principle- limits on adaptability - Exercise plan must be adjusted to the body’s response to exercise - Physical work capacity- the ability to tolerate movement without injury and without being very sore the following day Energy production (intensity) Energy—Energy can be defined as the capacity or ability to perform work. Energy is required for muscle contraction and other biological works such as digestion, nerve conduction, glandular secretions, and so on. Power—Power is the rate of change of energy or how quickly we can perform work. *Power output- the rate at which working muscles can produce energy* - Most people who do exercise regularly are not stressing the body to anywhere near the upper limit of its physical capacity - Aerobic energy production: producing energy with the use of oxygen - Anaerobic: producing energy in the absence of oxygen Warm up and Cool down - Purpose of warm up is to prepare the body for the exercise to follow - It is not about training any particular component of fitness - There is no evidence that stretching peior to activity will reduce the chances of injury - Warm-ups can be active or passive - Passive warm-ups such as hot shower, sauna, massage are less effective than a active warm up - Most effective warm up is an active one that consists of general and specific exercises A warm-up has the following purposes:  Permits a gradual increase in metabolic requirements, which improves cardiorespiratory performance (for example, higher cardiac output and aerobic power). An increase in body temperature facilitates enzyme activity in skeletal muscle, and increases blood flow and oxygen delivery to skeletal muscle.  Prevents high muscle acidity early in the exercise session. Higher acidity levels would increase local muscle fatigue.  Causes a gradual increase in deep muscle temperature, which decreases the work of contraction and hence reduces the chances of injury. The elastic components of muscle are susceptible to injury when a muscle is cold. Warming the muscle alters the stiffness of the connective tissue, resulting in a greater force and length required to tear the musculotendinous unit.  Improves neural transmission for motor unit recruitment, resulting in an improvement in contraction and reflex times of skeletal muscles.  Lessens the danger of inadequate blood flow to the heart (myocardial ischemia) in the early stages of exercise. Abrupt, strenuous exercise may be associated with such problems.  Provides a screening mechanism for potential musculoskeletal or metabolic problems that may be problematic at higher exercise intensities.  Lubricates joints.  Provides psychological preparation for the event (such as by increasing arousal and focus). A cool-down is not just stretching - A good rule is to keep moving until heart rate has dropped below 100 beats per minute - Suddenly stopping an exercise can be harmful - The skeletal muscles h
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