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Chapter 2

Chapter 2- Perception, Personality, and Emotions


Department
Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Professor
Zorana Svedic
Chapter
2

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Perception – the process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions to give meaning to their
environment
Peoples behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PERCEPTION
1. Perceiver – the person doing the perceiving; heavily influence by attitude, motives, interests, experience
and expectations
2. Target – the characteristics of the perceived
3. Situation or context
Attribution theory – atypical behavior by an individual is judged to be either internal or external
a) Distinctiveness – refers to whether an individual acts similarly across a variety of situations
b) Consensus – considers if everyone faced with a similar situation responds in the same way
c) Consistency – considers whether the individual has been acting in the same way over time
Fundamental attribution error – the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate
the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others
Self-serving bias – the tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting
the blame for failures on external factors
Selective perception – people’s selective interpretation of what they see based on their interests, background,
experience, and attitudes
Halo effect – drawing a general impression of an individual on the basis of asinle characteristic
Contrast effects – the concept that our reaction to one person is often influence by other people we have recently
encountered
Projection – tendency to attribute our own characteristics to other people
Stereotyping – judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which one belongs to
Heuristics – judgment shortcuts in decision making
Prejudice – an unfounded dislike of a person or group based on their belonging to a particular stereotyped group
Self-fulfilling prophecy – an individual’s behavior is determined by others expectations; Pygmalion effect
Personality – the stable patterns of behavior and consistent internal states that determine how an individual reacts
to and interacts with others
Observer ratings are a better predictor of success on the job
Heredity – factors that were determined at conception; genes
Personality traits – characteristics that are exhibited in a large number of situations
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator – most widely used personality-assessment instrument in the world
Big Five Personality Model – a personality assessment model that taps five basic dimension
1. Extraversion – describes the degree to which a person is sociable, talkative and assertive
2. Agreeableness – describes the degree to which a person is good-natured, cooperative and trusting
3. Conscientiousness – describes the degree to which a person is responsible, dependable, persistent, and
achievement-oriented
4. Emotional stability – characterizes someone as calm, self-confident, secure (positive) vs. nervous,
depressed, and insecure (negative)
5. Openness to experience – describes the degree to which a person is imaginative artistically sensitive, and
curious
Core self-evaluation – the degree to which an individual likes or dislikes himself, whether the person sees himself
as capable and effective, and whether the person feels in control of his or her environment or powerless over the
environment
Machiavellianism – the degree to which an individual is pragmatic maintains emotional distance, and believes that
ends can justify means (if it works, use it)
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