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Chapter 5

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Business Administration
BUS 272
Graeme Coetzer

Chapter 5 Foundations of employee Motivation Motivation the forces within a person that affect the direction, intensity and persistence of voluntary behaviour o One of the 4 essential drivers of individual behaviour and performance o Closely related to employee engagement Employee engagement the employees emotional and cognitive motivation, self-efficacy to perform the job, a clear understanding of their role in the orgs vision, and a belief that they have the resources to perform their job o Relates to 4 cornerstones of MARS model (motivation, ability, role perceptions, situational factors) about ones beliefs and emotional responses to these conditions that create high performance Drives, Needs and Employee Motivation Drives (aka. primary needs, fundamental needs, innate motives) neural states that energize individuals to correct deficiencies or maintain an internal equilibrium o prime mover of behaviour by activating emotions, which put us in a state of readiness to act emotions play a central role in motivation Needs goal-directed forces that people experience; represent motivational force of emotions channeled towards particular goals to correct deficiencies or imbalances Maslows needs hierarchy theory o developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow in the 1940s o A motivation theory of needs arranged in a hierarchy, whereby ppl are motivated to fulfill a higher need as a lower one becomes gratified integrates long list of previously-studied needs into a 5-level hierarchy o 4 bottom sets of needs known as deficiency needs while self-actualization is known as a growth need o Desire to know and desire for aesthetic beauty are considered 2 innate drives and dont fit in the hierarchyo We are motivated simultaneously by several needs, but the strongest source is the lowest unsatisfied need at the time o Limitations and contributions empirical evidence doesnt support Maslows theory ppl dont progress through the hierarchy as Maslow predicted; however, brings a more holistic, humanistic, positive approach to the study of human motivation Laid the foundation for Positive organizational behaviour a perspective of OB that focuses on building positive qualities and traits w/in individuals or institutions as opposed to focusing on what is wrong with them Whats wrong with needs hierarchy models? o ERG theory a needs hierarchy theory consisting of 3 fundamental needs: existence, relatedness, growth How ppl regress down the hierarchy when they fail to fulfill higher needs Explains motivation better than Maslow, but its easier to cluster needs around 3 categories than 5 o Most ppl dont fit into a single needs hierarchy; they are unique to each person, not universal Learned Needs theory o Developed by psychologist David McClelland recognized that a persons needs can be strengthened through reinforcement, learning, and social conditions o Need for Achievement (nAch) if strong, want to accomplish challenging tasks through own effort, prefer working alone, choose moderately risky tasks, desire unambiguous feedback/recognition for success, money is weak motivator o Need for Affiliation (nAff) desire to seek approval from others, conform to their wishes/expectations, avoid conflict/confrontation; if strong, project favourable image of themselves, actively support others and smooth out workplace c
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