Textbook Notes (368,401)
Canada (161,862)
Psychology (1,025)
PSYCH 312 (33)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7.docx

5 Pages
78 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 312
Professor
Ernie Mac Kinnon
Semester
Summer

Description
[ CHAPTER SEVEN ] ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER AND RELATED DISORDERS  Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – condition of brain tht makes it difficult for children to ctrl beh’ in school and soc settings  25-40% of CWLD have co-occurring ADHD  30-65% of children w/ ADHD have co-occurring LD  2/3 of children w/ ADHD have other co-occurring conditions (LD, disruptive beh’ Ds, anxiety Ds, tics and Tourette’s syndrome)  ADHD and ADD are two diff terms for same condition CHARACTERISTICS OF ADHD  Inattention – inability to concentrate on a task  Impulsiveness – tendency to respond quickly w/o thinking t/ consequences of action  Hyperactivity – beh’ described as constant, driving motor activity in which child races from one endeavour/interest to another  Some will have only 1 or 2 of these beh’s Symptoms of ADHD 1. Severity: symptoms must be more frequent and severe than typical children at ~ dvlmptal levels 2. Early onset: at least some of symptoms appeared before age 7 3. Duration: symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 mths prior to diagnosis Symptoms of ADHD at Different Ages Young Children  Excessive gross-motor activity (i.e. running/climbing)  Unable to sit still for more than a few min at a time before beginning to wriggle excessively Elementary-Age Children  Extremely restless and fidgety  Likely to talk too much in class and may constantly fight w/ friends, siblings, and classmates Adolescents  Hyperactivity may diminish  Beh’al problems, low SE, inattentiveness, or even depression may appear Adults  Organizational problems, soc rel’nshp difficulties, job problems ASSESSMENT Types of ADHD (DSM-IV-TR) ADHD-IA Subtype: Symptoms of Inattention  Fails to give close attention to details  Has difficulty sustaining attention  dN seem to listen  dN follow t/ or finish tasks  Has difficulty organizing tasks and activities  Avoids/dislikes tasks tht req’ sustained effort  Loses things needed for tasks  Easily distracted by extraneous stimuli  Often forgetful in daily activities ADHD-HI Subtype: Symptoms of Hyperactivity and Impulsivity Hyperactivity:  Fidgets w/ hands/feet, squirms in seat  Leaves seat in classroom or in other situations  Runs abt or climbs excessively  Has difficulty playing/engaging in leisure activities quietly  Talks excessively  Acts as if ―drive by motor‖ and cannot sit still Impulsivity:  Blurts out answers before q’ns completed  Has difficulty waiting in line or awaiting turn in games/activities  Interrupts/intrudes on others ADHD-C: Combined Subtype  Symptoms of both IA and HI  Abt 5% 1’ly inattentive  Abt 15% 1’ly hyperactive and impuslve  Abt 80% combined Rating Scales  Frequently used assessment measures for students w/ ADHD  Based on reports of beh’ obsv’d by teachers and parents Eligibility of Children with ADHD for Special Services  1991: Clarification of Policy to Address the Needs of Chidlren With Attention Deficit Disorders Within General and/or Special Education  1999: The Regulations for Individuals With Disabilities Education Act of 1997 (IDEA-1997)  2004: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 Implications of the Law for Children with ADHD Special Education Services  May be eligible under category of ―other health impaired‖/‖LD‖/‖emo’al disturbance‖ in IDEA-2004 Section 504 Services  Mandates tht any agency receiving federal funds must provide reasonable accommodations for PWD Increase in the Number of Children Identified with ADHD  I↑ in children identified mostly due to new inclusion in ―other health impaired‖ category of IDEA-2004 Educational Settings for Students with ADHD  GEC: 50%  Resource room: 31%  Separate class: 15%  Other placements: 4% Response-to-Intervention and Eligibility of Students with ADHD  RTI = procedure or providing interventions to all students at-risk for school failure  Child w/ suspected ADHD would receive intervention w/in GE in various tiers of intervention TREATMENTS FOR ADHD Multimodal Treatment  Combines several approaches: 1.) effective edu’al instruction 2.) beh’ management strategies 3.) family and child counselling 4.) home management 5.) medication  Improvement greatest when all components present and working in conjunction w/ each other Medication  Prescribed in 96.4% of all cases  Ideally, ctrls hyperactivity, i↑’s attention span, and reduces impulsive and aggressive beh’ w/o inducing side effects Psychostimulant Medications  Most widely used; abt 75-85% improve w/ use i.e. Ritalin, Dexedrine, Adderall, and Concerta  Affect brain of children by i↑’g arousal/alertness of CNS  Thought tht insufficient NT produced, and tht psychostimulants work by stimulating production of NTs needed to send info from brain stem to parts of brain tht deal w/ attention  Appears to lengthen attention spans, ctrl impulsivity, d↓ distractibility & motor activity, and improve visual-motor integration  Side effects: insomnia, loss of appetite - usually diminish as tolerance dvlps  Serious side effect of Ritalin: trigger tics or Tourette’s syndrome  Rebound effect – child’s beh’ can significantly deteriorate in late afternoon/evening after daytime dose wears off, causing chid to temporarily exhibit more impulsivity, distractibility, and hyperactivity than previously obsv’d Strattera  Not a psychostimulant  Only needs to be given once daily Other Medications  Wellbutrin  Catepres  Tenex  Strattera American Academy of Pediatrics Guidelines for Treatment  1 care clinicians should establish trtmt program tht recognizes ADHD as chronic condition  Treating clinician, parents, and chil, in collaboration w/ school personnel, should specify appropriate target
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 312

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit