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MGHB02H3 (269)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Notes

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Management (MGH)
Julie Mc Carthy

Chapter 3 Perception, Attribution, and Diversity Notes What is Perception? N perception the process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment N perception helps sort out and organize the complex and varied input received by senses of sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing N people frequently base their actions on interpretation of reality that their perceptual system provides, rather than on reality itself N some of the most important perceptions that influence OB are the perceptions that organizational members have of each other Components of Perception N perception has 3 componentsa perceiver, a target that is being perceived, and some situational context in which it is occurring N each of these components influences the perceivers impression or interpretation of the target The Perceiver N the perceivers experience, needs, and emotions can affect his or her perceptions of a target N one of the most important characteristics of the perceiver that influences his or her impressions of a target is experience N past experiences lead the perceiver to develop expectations, and these expectations affect current perceptions N frequently, needs unconsciously influence perceptions by causing people to perceive what they wish to perceive N emotions, such as anger, happiness, or fear, can influence an individuals perceptions N perceptual defence the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions The Target N perception involves interpretation and the addition of meaning to the target, and ambiguous targets are especially susceptible to interpretation and additionperceivers have a need to resolve such ambiguities N the perceiver does nor or cannot always use all the information provided by the target N in these cases, a reduction in ambiguity might not be accompanied by greater accuracy The Situation N every instance of perception occurs in some situational context, and this context can affect what one perceives N the most important effect that the situation can have is to add information about the target Social Identity Theory N social identity theory a theory that states that people form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories; as a result, sense of self is composed of a personal identity and a social identity N an individuals personal identity is based on the individuals unique characteristics, such as interests, abilities, and traits N an individuals social identity is based on the individuals perception of the various social groups that he or she belongs to, such as gender, nationality, religion, occupation, and so on N in addition to forming self-perceptions based on an individuals social memberships, they also form perceptions of others based on their memberships in social categories because social identities are relational and comparative N in other words, people define members of a category relative to members of other categories N social identity helps people understand how the components of the perceptual system operate in the formation of perceptions N if the situation changes, so might the categorization and the relation between the perceiver and the target N because people tend to perceive members of their own social categories in more positive and favourable ways than those who are different and belong to other categories, social identity theory is useful for understanding stereotyping and discrimination A Model of the Perceptual Process N according to Jerome Bruner, when the perceiver encounters an unfamiliar target, the perceiver is very open to the informational cues contained in the target and the situation surrounding it N in this unfamiliar state, the perceiver really needs information on which to base perceptions of the target and will actively seek out cues to resolve this ambiguity; but, gradually, the perceiver encounters some familiar cues that enable her or him to make a crude categorization of the target, which follows from social identity theory N at this point, cue search becomes less open and more selective as perceiver begins to search out cues that confirm categorization N as this categorization becomes stronger, the perceiver actively ignores or even distorts cues that violate initial perceptions N this does not mean that early categorization cannot be changed; yet, it does mean that it will take a good many contradictory cues before one re-categorizes the target, and that these cues will have to overcome the expectations that have been developed N Bruners model demonstrates 3 important characteristics of the perceptual process: 1) perception is selectiveperceivers do not use all the available cues, and those they do use are thus given special emphasis 2) perceptual constancy refers to the tendency for the target to be perceived in the same way over time or across situations 3) perceptual consistency refers to the tendency to select, ignore, and distort cues in such a manner that they fit together to form a homogenous picture of the target Basic Biases in Person Perception N because real world lacks ideal conditions, impression that people form of others are susceptible to a number of perceptual biases Primacy and Recency Effects N primacy effect the tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues or first impressions; has a lasting impact N primacy is a form of selectivity, and its lasting effects illustrate the operation of constancy N recency effect the tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions www.notesolution.com
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