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Canada (162,168)
MGHB02H3 (269)
Anna Nagy (23)
Chapter 3

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Management (MGH)
Anna Nagy

MGTB27 / 01 Week 2 Chapter 3: Perception, Attribution, and Diversity (pg. 71 101) - Canada Post is one of Canadas top 100 employers since it has a diverse workforce and encourages the recruitment of 4 designated groups: women, members of visible minorities, Aboriginal peoples, and persons with disabilities What is Perception? - Perception is the process of interpreting the messages of our sense to provide order and meaning to the environment - Perception interprets/helps sort out and organize the complex and varied input received by our senses of sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing - People often base actions on the interpretation of reality that their perceptual system provides rather than on reality itself (e.g. what you think of the situation) Components of Perception - Perception has three components: perceiver, target being perceived, and situation - Each of the component influences the perceivers impression or interpretation of the target The Perceiver - The perceivers experience, needs, and emotions can affect his/her perception of a target - Experience is the most important since past experiences lead the perceiver to develop expectations, and these expectations affect current perceptions o Caucasian men are less likely to perceive race or gender barriers to promotion - Our motivational state can unconsciously influence our perceptions by causing us to perceive what we wish to perceive o People deprived of food may see more edible things in ambiguous pictures - Emotional state such as anger, happiness, or fear can influence our perception o Employee is so happy because she got a promotion but fails to notice how upset her co-worker is because he was not the one promoted - Perceptual defence is the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions (e.g. see what we want to see / hear what we want to hear) The Target - Perception involves interpretation and the addition of meaning to the target and ambiguous targets are especially inclined to interpretation and addition - Providing more information about the target will not improve perceptual accuracy o Assigning a minority worker to a prejudiced manager may not improve the managers perception of their true abilities o Writing clearer memos may not always get the message across The Situation - Every instance of perception occurs in some situational context and this can affect what one perceives o A casual critical comment about your performance from your boss the week before she is to decide whether or not to promote you will be perceived different if you were not up for promotion (different situational contexts) Social Identity Theory - Social identity theory is a theory that states that people form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories. As a result, our sense of self is composed of personal identity and social identity - Personal identity: based on our unique personal characteristics (e.g. interests, abilities) MGTB27 / 02 Week 2 - Social identity: based on our perception that we belong to various social groups (e.g. gender, nationality, religion, occupation etc...) - Once we categorize ourselves in a social category, we develop a sense of who and what we are as well as our beliefs, values, and ways of thinking, acting, and feeling - We also form perceptions of others based on their memberships in social categories - Social identities are relational and comparative (define members of a category relative to members of other categories) - As the categories change, so will certain aspects of the focal social identity o The author of this text is a professor, students attribute professor attributes. If author lives next door to a student, the students perception of attributes and characteristics may be baby boomer this will be different than other students - Your perception of others is a function of how you categorize yourself (e.g. student) and your target (e.g. professor). When the situation changes, so might the categorization and the relation between the perceiver and the target - Since people tend to perceive members of their own social categories in more positive and favourable ways than those who are different, social identity theory is useful for understanding stereotyping and discrimination topics A Model of the Perceptual Process - How does the perceiver go about putting together the information contained in the target and the situation to form a picture of the target? - Psychologist Jerome Bruner has developed a model of the perceptual process o Perceiver encounters an unfamiliar target and situation surrounding it o Perceiver is open to the informational cues contained in the target and situation o Perceiver will seek familiar cues to base perceptions on the target o Perceiver begins to search out cues that confirm the categorization of the target o Perceivers cue search become less open and more selective o Categorization is strengthened when perceiver actively ignores or distorts cues that violate initial perceptions - An early categorization can be changed through many good contradictory cues before one recategorizes the target - Bruners model demonstrates three important characteristics of perceptual process o Perception is selective. Our perception is efficient by not using all available cues and the cues that we do use are given special emphasis. Efficiency can hinder/aid our perceptual accuracy o Perceptual constancy refers to the tendency for the target to be perceived in the same way over time or across situations. We paint a constant picture and it is often hard to change a bad first impression perception o Perceptual consistency refers to the tendency to select, ignore, and distort cues in such a manner that they fit together to form a homogeneous picture of the target. We do not see a person that is both good and bad or dependable & untrustworthy. Often distort cues in order to be consistent with our general image of a person Basic Biases in Person Perception - Impressions that we form of others are susceptible to a number of perceptual biases Primacy and Recency Effects - Primacy effect is the tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues or first impressions o Thus a worker who can favourably impress his/her boss within the first few days on the job is in an advantageous position due to primacyMGTB27 / 03 Week 2 o Form of selectivity and its lasting effects illustrate the operation of constancy - Recency effect is the tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions o E.g landing a big contract today may excuse a whole years bad sales performance Reliance on Central Traits - People tend to organize their perceptions around central traits which are personal characteristics of the target that are of special interest to a perceiver - Central traits often have a very powerful influence on our perceptions of others - Examples are: physical appearance relating to a variety of job-related outcomes, attractive people to be perceived as good (social competence, qualifications, success) - Research found that taller and more attractive people are also more likely to be paid more Implicit Personality Theories - Implicit personality theories are personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together - When such implicit theories are inaccurate, this provides a basis for misunderstanding - E.g. expecting hardworking people to also be honest Projection - Projection is the tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others - In some cases, projection may be efficient since people with similar backgrounds or interests often do think and feel similarly - However, projection can also lead to perceptual difficulties o Honest warehouse manager who perceives others as honest might find stock d
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