Chapter 3.docx

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Management (MGM)
Bill Mc Conkey

Chapter 3 – Exposure, Attention, and Perception - Exposure – the process by which the consumer comes in physic contact with a stimulus - Marketing Stimuli – information about offerings communicated either by the marketer via ads, salespeople, brand symbols, packages, signs, prices, and so on or by nonmarketing sources, e.g. the media or word of mouth - Factors influencing exposure o Position of an ad within a medium  Magazine ad: back cover or placed beside articles  Placed within TV programs that interest them o Product distribution and shelf placement  The more widespread the brand’s distribution is, the greater the likelihood that consumers will encounter it  More likely to be exposed to products at the end of aisles or those that take up a lot of shelf space  Placed at locations where consumers spend the most time and must go  E.g. checkout counters - Selective Exposure o Consumers, not marketers control whether their exposure to marketing stimuli occurs or not  Can actively seek certain stimuli and avoid others o Avoids ads for products that are irrelevant to them and ads where they already know what they say o Zipping – fast-forwarding through the commercials recorded on a VCR or DVR o Zapping – use of remote control to switch channels during commercial breaks - Measuring Exposure o Marketers are very interested in determining which media will generate exposure to their marketing stimuli and whether the desired exposure rates have actually been reached Attention - Attention – the process by which an individual allocates part of his or her mental activity to a stimulus - Characteristics of Attention o Attention is selective  Selective means that we decide what we want to focus on at any one time  We cannot examine all marketing stimuli simultaneously, so we must determine which one to focus on  Research shows that people pay attention to things they have seen many times before o Attention can be divided  We allocate attention flexibly to meet the demands of things in our environment  Have the potential to become distracted when one stimulus pulls our attention from another o Attention is limited  Consumers inevitably miss some products when they try to pay attention to many unfamiliar products Focal and Nonfocal Attention - Pre-attentive Processing – the nonconscious processing of stimuli in peripheral vision o With preattentive processing, most of our attentional resources are devoted to one thing, leaving very limited resources for attending to something else - Hemispheric Lateralization o Our ability to process information preattentively depends:  Whether the stimulus in peripheral vision is a picture or a word  Whether it is placed in the right or left visual field  Left hemisphere is best at processing units that can be combined (counting, processing unfamiliar words and forming sentences)  Right = processing music, graphing visual and spatial information, forming inferences and drawing conclusions o Right visual field = processed by left side o Left visual field = processed by right side - Preattentive processing, brand name liking and choice o Consumers will like the same brand more if they have processed it preattentively than if they have not been exposed to it all o Preattentive processing of the ad affected consumers’ consideration of the product, even though they had no memory of having seen the ad How to make an attractive marketing stimulus: 1. Make stimuli personally relevant a. Make it appeal to your needs, values, emotions or goals 2. Make stimuli pleasant a. People tel to approach thigns that are inherently pleaseant i. Attractive models ii. Using music iii. Using humor 3. Make stimuli surprising a. Using novelty 4. Using unexpectedness a. Placement or content differs from what we are used to, arousing curiosity and causing us to analyze them further to make a sense of them 5. Using a puzzle a. Visual rhymes, antitheses, metaphors, and puns are puzzles that attract attention because they require resolution 6. Make stimuli easy to process a. Prominence  the intensity of stimuli that causes them to stand out relative to the environment b. Concreteness  the extent to which a stimulus is capable of being imagined c. Contrasting Stimuli  different from other stimuli d. Amount of competing information  stimuli are easier to process when there are fewer things surrounding that compete for your attention Consumer Segments Defined by Attention - We can identify groups or segments of consumers who are more affected by relevance, pleasantness, surprise and ease of processing - Researchers identified a group of consumers who paid minimal attention to an ad because the elements in the ad were not relevant to them o Second group focused on things in the ad that were visually pleasant o Last group looked at the ad and devoted equal amounts of time to the picture, package, headline and body text Habituation - Habituation – the process by which a stimulus loses its attention-getting abilities by virtue of its familiarity - After we have been exposed to a stimulus and have devoted at least some attention to it, we are in a position to perceive it o Perception – the process by which incoming stimuli activate our sensory receptors; eyes, ears, taste buds, skin and so on o Perception through vision  Size and shape  Tend to buy products that appear to be taller than others  Like more eye-catching shapes  Lettering  Distinctive script, eye catching and identified with the brand/company  Color  Hue = the pigment contained in the colour  Saturation = richness of the colour  Lightness = the depth of tone in the colour  Effects of color on physiologica
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