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Chapter 13

MGHB02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Stressor

Management (MGH)
Course Code
Julie Mc Carthy

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Chapter 13 Conflict and Stress Notes
What is Conflict?
interpersonal conflict process that occurs when person, group, or organizational subunit frustrates goal attainment of another
in its classic form, conflict often involves antagonistic attitudes and behaviours
as for attitudes, the conflicting parties might develop a dislike for each another, see each other as unreasonable, or develop
negative stereotypes of their opposites (so group 1 might develop a stereotype for group 2)
antagonistic behaviour might include name calling, sabotage, or even physical aggression
Causes of Organizational Conflict
it is possible to isolate a number of factors that contribute to organizational conflict: group identification and intergroup bias;
interdependence; differences in power, status, and culture; ambiguity; and scarce resources
Types of Conflict
relationship conflict interpersonal tensions among individuals that have to do with their relationship per se, not task at hand
task conflict disagreements about the nature of the work to be done
process conflict disagreements about how work should be organized and accomplished
with work groups and teams, these three conflicts tend to be detrimental to member satisfaction and team performance
occasionally, some degree of task conflict might actually be beneficial for team performance, especially when the task is non-
routine and requires a variety of perspectives to be considered and when it does not degenerate into relationship conflict
Conflict Dynamics
a number of events occur when one or more of the causes of conflict take effect
specifically, when conflict begins, the following events are usually seen to transpire:
o“Winning” the conflict becomes more important than developing a good solution to the problem at hand.
oThe parties begin to conceal information from each other or to pass on distorted information.
oEach side becomes more cohesive. Deviants who speak of conciliation are punished, and strict conformity is expected.
oContact with the opposite party is discouraged except under formalized, restricted conditions.
oWhile the opposite party is negatively stereotyped, the image of one’s own position is boosted.
oOn each side, more aggressive people who are skilled at engaging in conflict may emerge as leaders.
Modes of Managing Conflict
avoiding a conflict management style characterized by low assertiveness of one’s own interest and low cooperation with the
other party; can provide some short-term stress reduction, but does not change the situation
accommodating conflict management style in which one cooperates with other party while not asserting one’s own interests
competing a conflict management style that maximizes assertiveness and minimizes cooperation
compromise a conflict management style that combines intermediate levels of assertiveness and cooperation
collaborating a conflict management style that maximizes both assertiveness and cooperation
Managing Conflict with Negotiation
negotiation a decision-making process among interdependent parties who do not share identical preferences
negotiation constitutes conflict management, in that it is an attempt to either prevent conflict or resolve existing conflict
negotiation is an attempt t reach a satisfactory exchange among or between the parties
distributive negotiation win-lose negotiation in which a fixed amount of assets is divided between parties
distributive negotiation occurs on the axis between competition and accommodation
integrative negotiation win-win negotiation that assumes that mutual problem solving can enlarge the assets to be divided
integrative negotiation occurs on the axis between avoiding and collaborating, ideally tending toward the latter
Distributive Negotiation Tactics
threat consists of implying that you will punish the other party if he or she does not concede to your position
promises are pledges that concessions will lead to rewards in the future
threat has some merit as a bargaining tactic if one party has power over the other that corresponds to the nature of the threat,
especially if no future negotiations are expected or if the threat can be posed in a civil and subtle way
promises have merit when your side lacks power and anticipates future negotiations with the other side
verbal persuasion or debate is common in negotiations as it often takes a two-pronged attack
one prong asserts the technical merits of the party’s position, while the other asserts the fairness of the target position
verbal persuasion is an attempt to change the attitudes of the other party toward your target position
Integrative Negotiation Tactics
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