MGHB02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Goal Setting

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Published on 19 Jul 2010
Motivation is one of the most traditional topics in organizational behaviour
To increase productivity and to be globally competitive
When someone is motivated, it means they are
o Working hard
o They keep at it
o They direct their behaviour toward appropriate outcomes
Basic Characteristics of Motivation
Motivation is the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal
The amount of effort the person exhibits on the job
Involves different kinds of activities for different jobs
The persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks
People are not persistent if they work hard for 2 hours and goof off for 6 hours
Effort and persistence refer to quantity of work
the direction of the person’s work-related behaviour refers to quality of work
working smart as well as working hard
all motivated behaviour has some goal or objective toward which it is directed
o goals might include: high productivity, good attendance, or creative decisions
o goals harmful to the organization: absenteeism, sabotage, and embezzlement
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task; it is
usually self-applied
o Feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge and competence
o Avid participation in sports and hobbies outside of work
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Extrinsic Motivation stems from the work environment external to the task and is usually
applied by someone other than the person being motivated.
o pay, fringe benefits, company policies, and supervision
research studies have reached the conclusion that the availability of extrinsic motivators can
reduce the intrinsic motivation stemming from the task itself
o When extrinsic rewards depend on performance, the motivating potential for intrinsic
o People believe that their performance is controlled by environment, and they only
perform well because of money
o However, research shows, only this occurs under very limited conditions, easily
Motivation Performance
Performance can be defined as the extent to which an organizational member contributes to
achieving the objectives of the organization
o Contributing factors:
! amount, persistence, direction of effort
! motivation, personality, general cognitive ability, task understanding,
emotional intelligence, chance
intelligence (or mental ability) also contributes to performance, two important ones are
general cognitive ability and emotional intelligence
General Cognitive Ability
cognitive ability refers to what most people call intelligence
General Cognitive Ability is a person’s basic information processing capacities and
cognitive resources
o Reflects individuals overall capacity and efficiency for processing information, and
abilities such as verbal, numerical, spatial, and reasoning abilities
o Measured by a number of specific aptitude tests
o Predicts learning and training success
o Better predictor of performance for more complex and high-level jobs
Emotional Intelligence
! Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s
feelings and emotions
o Perceive and express emotion
o assimilate emotion and thought
o understand and reason about emotions
o manage emotions
! EI Model of 4 skills in sequential steps that form a hierarchy
o The perception of emotion:
! Ability to perceive emotions and to accurately identify one’s own emotions
and the emotions of others
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o The integration and assimilation of emotions
! Ability to use and assimilate emotions and emotional experiences to guide and
facilitate one’s thinking and reasoning
! Being about to shift one’s emotions and generate new emotions that can help
one see things in different ways and from different perspectives
o Knowledge and understanding of emotions
! Being able to understand emotional information, the determinants and
consequences of emotions, and how emotions evolve and change over time
! Understand how different situations generate different emotions
o Management of emotions
! Ability to manage one’s own and other’s feeling and emotions as well as
emotional relationships
! Able to regulate, adjust, and change their own emotions as well as other’s
emotions to suit situation
! Some EI studies predicts performance on job and in academics, some say there is no relation
! Motivational interventions such as link pay to performance, will not work if employees are
deficient in important skills and abilities
! Need theories are motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the
conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes
to performance
! Need theories are concerned with what motivates workers
! Process theories are concerned with how various factors motivate workers
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
! Physiological Needs: include the needs that must be satisfied for the person to survive, such
as food, water, oxygen, and shelter
! Safety Needs: include needs for security, stability, freedom from anxiety, and a structured and
ordered environment, comfortable work environment, pension plans, safe work conditions
! Belongingness(Social) Needs: include needs for social interaction, affection, love,
companionship, and friendship, friendly and supportive supervision, opportunity for
! Esteem Needs: include needs for feelings of adequacy, competence, independence, strength,
and confidence. Opportunity to master tasks leading to feelings of achievement, rewards,
promotions, job titles
! Self-actualization Needs: desire to develop one`s true potential as an individual to the fullest
extent and to express one`s skills, talents, and emotions. Includes absorbing jobs with
potential for creativity
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