a product or project manager. (Functional & product departmentation)
----There are many variations on matrix design. (Geographical regions or projects, shorter-term projects)
----Advantages: It provides a degree of balance between the abstract demands of the product or project and the
people who actually do the work, resulting in a better outcome; flexible; being focused on a particular product
or project can lead to better communication among the representative from the various functional areas.
----Disadvantage: No guarantee that product or project managers will see eye-to-eye with various functional
managers. This can create conflict; employees assigned to a product or project team repot to two managers, it
can result in role conflict and stress.
Other forms of deparmentation:
Geographic departmentation: Relatively self-contained units deliver an organization’s products or services in
a specific geographic territory.
----It shortens communication channels, allows the organization to cater to regional tastes, and gives some
appearance of local control to clients and customers.
Customer departmentation: Relatively self-contained units deliver an organization’s products or services to
specific customer groups.
Hybrid departmentation: A structured based on some mixture of functional, product, geographic, or
----Capitalize on the strengths of various structures and avoiding the weaknesses of others.
Basic methods of coordinating divided labor:
Coordination: A process of facilitating timing, communication, and feedback among work tasks.
Direct supervision: Working though the chain of command, designated supervisors or managers coordinate
the work of their subordinates.
Standardization of work processes: Some jobs are so routine that the technology itself provides a means of
coordination. Little direct supervision is necessary for these jobs to be coordinated. Work processes can be
standardized by rules and regulations.
Standardization of outputs: To ensure that the work meets certain physical or economic standards. It is
often used to coordinate the work of separate product or geographic divisions. Top management assigns
each division a profit target.
Standardization of skills: This is common in the case of technicians and professionals. Minimal verbal
communication is required because of its high degree of standard training.
Mutual adjustment: Mutual adjustment relies on informal communication to coordinate tasks. It is useful
for coordinating the most simple and the most complicated divisions of labor. People in these jobs are
preoccupied with very nonroutine problems, so standardization would be impossible.
----The methods can be crudely ordered in terms of the degree of discretion they permit in terms of task
performance. (Direct supervision – Standardization of outputs – Mutual adjustment)
----As we move from the left side to the right side, there is greater potential for jobs to be designed in an
enriched manner. An improper coordination strategy can destroy the intrinsic motivation of a job. (The method
of coordination affects the design of jobs)
----The use of methods of coordination tends to vary across different parts of the organization. These
differences in coordination stem from the way labor has been divided.
----Methods of coordination may change as task demands change.