Chapter 9 Notes

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1 Apr 2011
Chapter 9
Leadership –one person influences other group members toward the attainment of group
Leadercreate the essential purpose of an organization and the strategy for attaining it
i.e. establish organizational mission formulate strategy for implementing missiono
Limitations of the Trait Approach(born)
1) Trait leader (weak correlation)
2) what leaders actually do to influence others successfully
3) failure to take into account the situation
2 leadership roles
1) task leader – accomplish a task by others, planning strategy, dividing labour
2) social-emotional leader – reducing tension, patching up disagreements, settling arguments,
maintaining morale
Crucial leadership behaviours that leaders engage in(made) – Ohio State studies
1) consideration (concern for people) - approachable and shows personal concern for employees
- more strong in leader satisfaction and job satisfaction, motivation, and leader effectiveness
2) initiating structure (production) – actions designed to enhance productivity or task performance
- more strong in leader job performance and group performance (maintain std. performance)
both are positive to motivation, job satisfaction, leader effectiveness
depend on characteristics of the task, the employee, and the setting in which the work is performed
Leader reward behaviour - compliments, tangible benefits, deserved special treatment
Leader punishment behaviour - reprimands or unfavourable task assignments and the active
withholding of raises, promotions, and other rewards
Contingent( ) leader reward and punishment behaviour is positively related to
1) employees’ perceptions (e.g., trust in supervisor)
2) attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction and organizational commitment)
3) behaviour (e.g., effort, performance, organizational citizenship behaviour)
Situational Theories of Leadership
1) characteristics of the employees
2) the nature of the task they are performing
3) characteristics of the organization
Fiedlers Contingency Theory
-association between leadership orientation and group effectiveness depends on the situation is
favourable for the exertion( ) of influence
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Leadership Orientation – leader describes Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC)
- reveals a personality trait that reflects the leader's motivational structure
-high LPC score relationship oriented
-low LPC score considered task oriented
Situational Favourablenesscontingency part
Most Favourable Factors: leader-member relations, task structure, and position power
Contingency Model
-task orientation (low LPC) most effective when situation is very favourable/very unfavourable
-relationship orientation (high LPC) most effective medium favourability
Houses Path-Goal Theory(Contingency Theories of Leadership)
-display an appropriate leadership style
-effective leaders enhance job satisfaction, motivation, and performance when:
1) clarify the paths for them to achieving their goals
2) perceive effortsperformancerewards
3) fit their leadership style to the needs of the environment
4) to the needs of the subordinates
-more effective in predicting employee job satisfaction and acceptance of the leader than in
predicting employee performance
4 Leader Behavior :
1) Directive/instrumental behaviour (most effective on ambiguous, less structured jobs)
schedule work, maintain performance standards, and provides specific guidance
2) Supportive behaviour (most beneficial in supervising routine, frustrating, or dissatisfying jobs)
- leaders are friendly, approachable, and satisfies subordinate needs
3) Participative behaviour
- subordinates participate in decisions
4) Achievement-oriented behaviour
- set challenging goals
2 S ituational F actors
1) Employee Characteristics (abilities/ need for affiliation: low or high?)
high need achievers be told what to do, or who feel that they have low task abilities
2) Work Environmental factors (unstructured or routine?) (task structure, formal authority)
routine tasks, challenging but ambiguous tasks, and frustrating, dissatisfying jobs
- take advantage of the motivating and satisfying aspects of jobs
- offsetting or compensating for demotivate or dissatisfy jobs
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