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Chapter 12

MGHB02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Politicking With Larry King, Job Performance, Job Satisfaction

Course Code
Melissa Warner

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Chapter 12 | Power
What is Power?
oCapacity to influence others who are in a state of dependence.
oNotice that power is the capacity to influence the behaviour of others. It is not
always perceived or exercised.
oTarget of power is dependent on the power holder does not imply a poor
relationship between the powerholder and the target of power.
oPower can flow in any direction in an organization.
oPower applies to both individuals and groups.
Bases of Individual Power
Legitimate Power (Compliance Response)
oPower derived from a person’s position or job in an organization.
oConstitutes the organization’s judgment about who is formally permitted to
influence whom, and it is often called authority.
oCorresponds to one’s rank in hierarchy.
oIt is based on one’s authority and level in an organization’s hierarchy.
oLegitimate power works because people have been socialized to accept its
Reward Power (Compliance Response)
oPower derived from the ability to provide positive outcomes and prevent negative
oIt corresponds to the concept of positive reinforcement.
oAny organizational member can attempt to exert influence over others with praise,
compliments, and flattery.
Coercive Power (Resistance Response)
oPower derived from the use of punishment and threat.
oLower-level organizational members can also apply their share of coercion.
oWhen managers use coercive power, it is generally ineffective and can provoke
considerable employee resistance.
Referent Power (Commitment Response)
oPower derived from being well liked by others.
oIt stems from identification with the powerholder.
oReferent power is available to anyone in an organization who is well liked.
oInterpersonal relations often permit influence to extend across the organization,
outside the usual channels of legitimate authority, reward, and coercion.
Expert Power (Commitment Response)
oPower derived from having special information or expertise that is valued by an
oExpert power corresponds to difficulty of replacement.
The more crucial and unusual this expertise, the greater is the expert
power available.
oExpert power is a valuable asset for managers.
oMost consistently associated with employee effectiveness.
oEmployees perceive women managers as more likely than male managers to be
high in expert power.

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Chapter 12 | Power
How do people obtain Power?
Doing the Right Things
oExtraordinary Activities
Excellent performance in unusual or non-routine activities.
Taking risks, managing substantial changes, and occupying new
As well as excellent performance of a routine job.
oVisible Activities
Activities must be visible to others and publicized.
Extraordinary activities will fail to generate power if no one knows
activities and publicizing them.
oRelevant Activities
Relevant to the solution of important organizational problems.
Extraordinary, visible work may fail to generate power if no-one cares.
Cultivating the Right People
Establishing good relationships with key people outside of one’s
Sometimes this power is merely a reflection of the status of the outsider,
but it may add to one’s internal influence.
Being closely identified with certain up-and-coming subordinates.
Being backed by a cohesive team.
A means of ensuring that nothing gets in the way of one’s future
acquisition of power.
As one moves up through the ranks, favours can be asked of former
associates, and fears of being ‘stabbed in the back’ for a past misdeed are
Liaisons with key superiors are the best way of obtaining power through
cultivating others.
Mentors can provide power in several ways.
Useful to be identified as a protégé of someone higher in the organization.
Mentors can provide special information and useful introductions to the
right people.
Empowerment – Putting Power Where It Is Needed
oGiving people the authority, opportunity, and motivation to take initiative and
solve organizational problems.
oGenerally, having authority to solve organizational problem means having
legitimate power.
oPeople who are empowered have a strong sense of self-efficacy.
oEmpowering lower-level employees can be critical in service organizations.
oEmpowerment fosters job satisfaction and high performance.

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Chapter 12 | Power
oEmpowerment puts power where it is needed to make an effective organization.
oMotivation part of the empowerment equation suggests hiring people who will be
intrinsically motivated by power and opportunity and aligning extrinsic rewards
with successful performance.
oEmpowerment should lead to effective performance when people have sufficient
power to carry out their jobs.
oExcessive power can lead to abuse and ineffective performance.
oLack of power causes inadequate power and ineffective performance, sufficient
power and effective performance causes empowerment, and excessive power and
ineffective performance causes abuse of power.
Influence Tactics – Putting Power to Work
Influence Tactics
oTactics that are used to convert power into actual influence over others.
oThese tactics include:
AssertivenessOrdering, nagging, setting deadlines, verbally confronting
Ingratiation – Using flattery and acting friendly, polite, or humble;
Rationality – Using logic, reason, planning, and compromise;
Exchange – Doing favours or offering to trade favours;
Upward Appeal Making formal or informal appeals to organizational
superiors for intervention; and
Coalition Formation Seeking united support from other organizational
oYour bases of power determine which influence tactics you will use.
oUse of influence tactics depends on who you are trying to influence superiors,
subordinates or peers.
Subordinates are more likely to be the recipients of assertiveness than
peers or superiors.
Despite general popularity of rationality, it is most likely to be directed
toward superiors.
oParticularly ineffective influence style is a ‘shotgun’ style that is high on all
tactics with particular emphasis on assertiveness and exchange.
Who Wanted Power?
Need for power (n Pow) is the need to have strong influence over others.
It is a reliable personality characteristic – some people have more n Pow than others.
When n Pow is responsible and controlled, its negative properties are not observed.
The most effective managers use their n Pow for the good of the organization. They are
called institutional managers.
Institutional managers:
ohave a high n Pow;
ouse their power to achieve organizational goals;
oadopt a participative or “coaching” leadership style; and
oare relatively unconcerned with how much others like them.
Institutional managers are more effective than personal power managers, who use their
power for personal gain, and affiliative managers, who are more concerned with being
liked than with exercising power.
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