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Chapter 7


Department
Management (MGH)
Course Code
MGHD27H3
Professor
Joanna Heathcote
Chapter
7

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CHAPTER 7 GROUPS AND TEAMWORK
WHAT IS A GROUP?
oGROUP Two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal
oGroup memberships are very important for two reasons
First groups exert tremendous influence on us (beliefs, values and attitudes and
behaviours)
Groups provide a context in which we are able to exert influence on others
oFORMAL WORK GROUPS groups that are established by orgs to facilitate the
achievement of organizational goals
oINFORMAL GROUPS Groups that emerge naturally in response to the common
interests of organizational members
GROUP DEVELOPMENT
oTYPICAL STRATEGIES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT
FORMING getting to know each other, testing the waters
STORMING conflict often emerges at this point
NORMING members resolve the issue and develop social consensus
PERFORMING group devotes it energies toward task accomplishment
ADJOURNING Some groups, such as task forces and design project teams,
have a definite life span and disperse after achieving their goals
Members often express emotional support for one another
oPUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM
A model of group development that describe how groups with deadlines are
affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions
Phase 1 although gathers info and holds meetings little is done
towards the goal
Midpoint Transition they either move forward or they dont, may need
outside help
Phase 2 burst of activity
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Prepare carefully for the first meeting, what is decided here will strongly
determine what happened in the rest of phase 1
As long as the people are working do not look for radical progress during phase
1
Manage the midpoint transition carefully. Evaluate the strengths and
weaknesses of the ideas that people generated in phase 1
Be sure that adequate resources are available to actually execute the phase 2
plan
Resist deadline changes. This could damage the midpoint transition
GROUP STRUCTURE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES
oGROUP SIZE
SIZE AND SATISFACTION bigger better, to a certain point. Too big can
result in that a person cannot identify what they have contributed to the groups
success
SIZE AND PERFORMANCE
Additive tasks tasks in which group performance is dependent on the
sum of the performance of individual group members
Disjunctive tasks Tasks in which group performance is dependent on
the performance of the best group members
All would benefit with a larger group
Process Losses Group performance difficulties stemming from the
problem of motivating and coordinating larger groups
Conjunctive tasks Tasks in which group performance is limited bu the
performance of the poorest group member
oDIVERSITY OF GROUP MEMBERSHIP
More diverse can be better but must be managed effectively
oGROUP NORMS
collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the
behaviour of each other
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Norm developmentnorms develop to regulate behaviours that are considered
at least marginally important to their supporters
How norms develop individuals develop attitudes as a function of a
related belief and value. When members of a group share related beliefs
or values, we can expect them to share consequent attitudes
Why do people comply with norms? complies with privately held
values, saves time and prevent s confusion
Some Typical Norms
Dress Norms
Reward Allocation Norms
oEquity-reward according to inputs
oEquality- every equally
oReciprocity- people the way they reward you
oSocial responsibility- reward those who truly need the reward
Performance Norms- an appropriate level of performance
oROLES
Positions in a group that have a set of expected behaviours attached to them
Two different kind of roles, assigned roles and emergent roles
ROLE AMBIGUITY Lack of clarity of job goals or methods
Org factors Some roles seem inherently ambiguous because of their
function in the organization
The Role Sender role senders might have unclear expectations of a
focal person
The focal person even role expectations that are clearly developed and
sent might not be fully digested by the focal person/ especially true when
they are new to the role
ROLE CONFLICTA condiditon of being faced with incompatible role
expectations
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