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22 Dec 2010
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CHAPTER 7 GROUPS AND TEAMWORK
โ€ขWHAT IS A GROUP?
oGROUP๎€ Two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal
oGroup memberships are very important for two reasons
๎€‚First groups exert tremendous influence on us (beliefs, values and attitudes and
behaviours)
๎€‚Groups provide a context in which we are able to exert influence on others
oFORMAL WORK GROUPS๎€ groups that are established by orgs to facilitate the
achievement of organizational goals
oINFORMAL GROUPS๎€ Groups that emerge naturally in response to the common
interests of organizational members
โ€ขGROUP DEVELOPMENT
oTYPICAL STRATEGIES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT
๎€‚FORMING๎€ getting to know each other, testing the waters
๎€‚STORMING๎€ conflict often emerges at this point
๎€‚NORMING๎€ members resolve the issue and develop social consensus
๎€‚PERFORMING๎€ group devotes it energies toward task accomplishment
๎€‚ADJOURNING๎€ Some groups, such as task forces and design project teams,
have a definite life span and disperse after achieving their goals
โ€ขMembers often express emotional support for one another
oPUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM
๎€‚๎€ A model of group development that describe how groups with deadlines are
affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions
โ€ขPhase 1๎€ although gathers info and holds meetings little is done
towards the goal
โ€ขMidpoint Transition๎€ they either move forward or they donโ€™t, may need
outside help
โ€ขPhase 2๎€ burst of activity
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๎€‚Prepare carefully for the first meeting, what is decided here will strongly
determine what happened in the rest of phase 1
๎€‚As long as the people are working do not look for radical progress during phase
1
๎€‚Manage the midpoint transition carefully. Evaluate the strengths and
weaknesses of the ideas that people generated in phase 1
๎€‚Be sure that adequate resources are available to actually execute the phase 2
plan
๎€‚Resist deadline changes. This could damage the midpoint transition
โ€ขGROUP STRUCTURE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES
oGROUP SIZE
๎€‚SIZE AND SATISFACTION๎€ bigger better, to a certain point. Too big can
result in that a person cannot identify what they have contributed to the groupโ€™s
success
๎€‚SIZE AND PERFORMANCE
โ€ขAdditive tasks๎€ tasks in which group performance is dependent on the
sum of the performance of individual group members
โ€ขDisjunctive tasks๎€ Tasks in which group performance is dependent on
the performance of the best group members
โ€ขAll would benefit with a larger group
โ€ข Process Losses๎€ Group performance difficulties stemming from the
problem of motivating and coordinating larger groups
โ€ขConjunctive tasks๎€ Tasks in which group performance is limited bu the
performance of the poorest group member
oDIVERSITY OF GROUP MEMBERSHIP
๎€‚More diverse can be better but must be managed effectively
oGROUP NORMS
๎€‚๎€ collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the
behaviour of each other
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๎€‚Norm development๎€norms develop to regulate behaviours that are considered
at least marginally important to their supporters
โ€ขHow norms develop๎€ individuals develop attitudes as a function of a
related belief and value. When members of a group share related beliefs
or values, we can expect them to share consequent attitudes
โ€ขWhy do people comply with norms? ๎€ complies with privately held
values, saves time and prevent s confusion
๎€‚Some Typical Norms
โ€ขDress Norms
โ€ขReward Allocation Norms
oEquity-reward according to inputs
oEquality- โ€œ every equally
oReciprocity- โ€œpeople the way they reward you
oSocial responsibility- reward those who truly need the reward
โ€ขPerformance Norms- an appropriate level of performance
oROLES
๎€‚๎€ Positions in a group that have a set of expected behaviours attached to them
๎€‚Two different kind of roles, assigned roles and emergent roles
๎€‚ROLE AMBIGUITY๎€ Lack of clarity of job goals or methods
โ€ขOrg factors๎€ Some roles seem inherently ambiguous because of their
function in the organization
โ€ขThe Role Sender๎€ role senders might have unclear expectations of a
focal person
โ€ขThe focal person๎€ even role expectations that are clearly developed and
sent might not be fully digested by the focal person/ especially true when
they are new to the role
๎€‚ROLE CONFLICT๎€A condiditon of being faced with incompatible role
expectations
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Document Summary

Chapter 7 groups and teamwork: what is a group, group two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal, group memberships are very important for two reasons. first groups exert tremendous influence on us (beliefs, values and attitudes and behaviours) forming getting to know each other, testing the waters. storming conflict often emerges at this point. norming members resolve the issue and develop social consensus. performing group devotes it energies toward task accomplishment. adjourning some groups, such as task forces and design project teams, have a definite life span and disperse after achieving their goals: members often express emotional support for one another, punctuated equil ibrium. prepare carefully for the first meeting, what is decided here will strongly determine what happened in the rest of phase 1. as long as the people are working do not look for radical progress during phase.

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