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Chapter 8

Chapter 8

12 Pages
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Department
Management (MGH)
Course Code
MGHD27H3
Professor
Joanna Heathcote

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Chapter 8 Social Influence, Socialization and Culture
SOCIAL INFLUENCE IN ORGANIZATIONS
The fact that people are dependent on other allowed for influence to occur
INFORMATION DEPENDENCE AND EFFECT DEPENDENCE
oINFORMATION DEPENDENCE Reliance on others for information about
how to think, feel, and act
Individuals are often motivated to compare their own thoughts,
feelings and actions with those of others as a means of acquiring
information about their adequacy
The effects of social information can be very strong, often exerting as
much or more influence over others as objective reality
oEFFECT DEPENDENCE Reliance on others due to their capacity to
provide rewards and punishment
Involves two complementary processes
Group frequently has a vested interest in how individual
members think and act because such matters can affect the
goal attainment of the group
The member frequently desires the approval of the group
SOCIAL INFLUENCE IN ACTION
oMOTIVES FOR SOCIAL CONFORMITY
COMPLIANCE Conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire
to acquire rewards or avoid punishment
Primarily involves effect dependence
Do not necessarily subscribe to the values
IDENTIFICATION Conformity to a social norm prompted by
perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar
to oneself
The supporters of the norm are attractive to the seer and they
view themselves as similar to them
INTERNALIZATION Conformity to a social norm prompted by true
acceptance of the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm
oTHE SUBTLE POWER OF COMPLIANCE
A compliant individual is necessarily doing something is contrary to
the way he or she thinks or feels
Must cease conformity in this case especially when the required
behaviour is very different from ones values/morals etc.
They are more likely to eventually accept the norms when the
behaviour in question is not so discrepant with their values
ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIALIZATION
www.notesolution.com
Socialization The process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge, and
behaviours that are necessary to function in a group or organization
Socialization Methods Proximal Socialization Outcomes Distal Socialization
Outcomes
An important objective of org. socialization is for newcomers to achieve a good fit
PERSON-JOB FIT The match between an employees knowledge, skills, and
abilities and the requirement s of a job
PERSON-ORG FIT The match between an employees personal values and the
values of an organization
One of the primary goals of organizational socialization is to ensure that new
employees learn and understand the key beliefs, values, and assumptions of an
organizations culture and for individuals to define themselves in terms of the
organization and what is perceived to represent
ORG IDENTIFICATION The extent to which an individual defines him or
herself in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent
STAGES OF SOCIALIZATION (3 STAGES)
oANTICIPATORY SOCIALIZATION A considerable amount of
socialization occurs even before a person becomes a member of a
particular organization
oENCOUNTER Day to day reality of work life there/orientation
programs and rotation. Boss is looking that the recruit is able to conform
or has, and the recruit is looking at whether their needs can be fulfilled
oROLE MANAGEMENT after the first two steps the recruit is focused
on fine tuning their and actively managing his or her role in the
organization
UNREALISTIC EXPECTATIONS AND THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT
oUNREALISTIC EXPECATIONS Research indicates that people
entering orgs hold many expectations that are inactive and often
unrealistically high
oPSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT beliefs held by employees regarding
the reciprocal obligations and promises between them and their
organization
oPSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT BREACH Employee perceptions that
his or her organization has failed to fulfill one or more of its promises or
obligations of the psychological contract
This occurs because of many reasons, one being that employers
often have to promise more than what they can realistically offer
when recruiting
www.notesolution.com
Newcomers also lack sufficient information regarding the company
to make an accurate perception of the company
Many terms of the psychological contract are created in the
anticipatory socialization process
METHODS OF ORG. SOCIALIZATION
oREALISTIC JOB PREVIEWS The provision of balanced, realistic
picture of the positive and negative aspects of a job to applicants
oResearch evidence effective in reducing inflated expectations and
turnover and improving job performance. People are also more prone to
perform self-selection where they automatically screen themselves out of
the selection process as they do not see that their personality, values and
beliefs belong in that company
oEMPLOYEE ORIENTATION PROGRAMS Programs designed to
introduce new employees to their job, the people they will be working
with, and the organization
oResearch Evidence immediate effect on learning and a lasting effect on
the job attitudes and behaviours of new hires
oSOCIALIZATION TACTICS the manner in which orgs structure the
early work experiences of newcomers and individuals who are in
transition from one role to another
COLLECTIVE VERSUS INDIVIDUAL TACTICS new members
are socialized as a group/ individual is when people are socialized
individually
FORMAL VERSUS INFORMAL TACTICS separating them
versus not separating them
SEQUENTIAL VERSUS RANDOM TACTICS steps or no steps
to the socialization process
FIXED VERSUS VARIABLE Time frame for the adoption of role
SERIAL VERSUS DISJUNCTIVE refers to a process in which
newcomers are socialized by experienced members of the
organization. Disjunctive, where role models do not groom the new
hires
INVESTITURE VERSUS DIVESTITURE TACTICS DIV=hazing
whereas INV= acknowledges the attributes of new hires
INSTITUTIONALIZED VERSUS INDIVIDUALIZED
SOCIALIZATION
Institutionalized Individualized
Collective
Formal
individual
informal
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 8 Social Influence, Socialization and Culture SOCIAL INFLUENCE IN ORGANIZATIONS The fact that people are dependent on other allowed for influence to occur INFORMATION DEPENDENCE AND EFFECT DEPENDENCE o INFORMATION DEPENDENCE Reliance on others for information about how to think, feel, and act Individuals are often motivated to compare their own thoughts, feelings and actions with those of others as a means of acquiring information about their adequacy The effects of social information can be very strong, often exerting as much or more influence over others as objective reality o EFFECT DEPENDENCE Reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishment Involves two complementary processes Group frequently has a vested interest in how individual members think and act because such matters can affect the goal attainment of the group The member frequently desires the approval of the group SOCIAL INFLUENCE IN ACTION o MOTIVES FOR SOCIAL CONFORMITY COMPLIANCE Conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment Primarily involves effect dependence Do not necessarily subscribe to the values IDENTIFICATION Conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself The supporters of the norm are attractive to the seer and they view themselves as similar to them INTERNALIZATION Conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm o THE SUBTLE POWER OF COMPLIANCE A compliant individual is necessarily doing something is contrary to the way he or she thinks or feels Must cease conformity in this case especially when the required behaviour is very different from ones valuesmorals etc. They are more likely to eventually accept the norms when the behaviour in question is not so discrepant with their values ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIALIZATION www.notesolution.com Socialization The process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviours that are necessary to function in a group or organization Socialization Methods Proximal Socialization Outcomes Distal Socialization Outcomes An important objective of org. socialization is for newcomers to achieve a good fit PERSON-JOB FIT The match between an employees knowledge, skills, and abilities and the requirement s of a job PERSON-ORG FIT The match between an employees personal values and the values of an organization One of the primary goals of organizational socialization is to ensure that new employees learn and understand the key beliefs, values, and assumptions of an organizations culture and for individuals to define themselves in terms of the organization and what is perceived to represent ORG IDENTIFICATION The extent to which an individual defines him or herself in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent STAGES OF SOCIALIZATION (3 STAGES) o ANTICIPATORY SOCIALIZATION A considerable amount of socialization occurs even before a person becomes a member of a particular organization o ENCOUNTER Day to day reality of work life thereorientation programs and rotation. Boss is looking that the recruit is able to conform or has, and the recruit is looking at whether their needs can be fulfilled o ROLE MANAGEMENT after the first two steps the recruit is focused on fine tuning their and actively managing his or her role in the organization UNREALISTIC EXPECTATIONS AND THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT o UNREALISTIC EXPECATIONS Research indicates that people entering orgs hold many expectations that are inactive and often unrealistically high o PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations and promises between them and their organization o PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT BREACH Employee perceptions that his or her organization has failed to fulfill one or more of its promises or obligations of the psychological contract This occurs because of many reasons, one being that employers often have to promise more than what they can realistically offer when recruiting www.notesolution.com
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