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CH.16- psyb45 .pdf

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Amanda Uliaszek

Chapter 16: Using Advanced Reinforcement Procedures to Increase a Behaviour Naela. Syed Token Reinforcement Systems tokensconditioned reinforcers tht can be exchanged for backup items (candy, certain activities) token reinforcement system: reward system in which token reinforcers backup rewards are chosen applied w specific rules to change target behaviour Tokens as Conditioned Reinforcers tokens can be in many formspoker chips, stars, printed paper money, checkmarks in a table tokens as conditioned reinforcer>tokens not originally reinforcing for a person, through learning, tokens become reinforcers any stimulus can become conditioned reinforcer if paired repeatedly with established conditioned or unconditioned reinforcer (respondent conditioning) Pros and Cons of Using Token Reinforcers advantages of token reinforcers: token can be given immediately after desirable behaviour, bridges the delay between performing behaviour getting earned reinforcer (tangible, activity, consumable etc.) dont disrupt on going activities as much as other types of reinforcers do can be easily applied w groups of ppl bc tokens can always be exchanged for diff backup reinforcers, reward value remains high not dependent on specific establishing operation tht currently exists allows to create system of punishment, response cost, where person loses something of value (tokens earned) after performing an inappropriate behaviour disadvantages of token reinforcers: extra training for staff members , must keep track of more detail actual tokens cannot be hazardous should be durable, easy to store, handle difficult to counterfeit some unable to understand connection between tokens backup reinforcers Setting Up Administering Token Systems first need to identify if target behaviour is behavioural deficit or behavioural excess conduct functional assessment to identify antecedents consequences of each behaviour staff members shud be trained to know when target behaviour has has not occurred how to administer Choosing the Tokens and Backup Consequences deciding which backup reinforcers punishers to include in token reinforcement system, use: direct assessment methods observing target persons preferences in naturalisticstructured tests indirect assessment methods asking questions in interview, or filling out questionnaire using punishment in token systems response cost: person pays fines, in tokens for instances of a behavioural excess (behavioural deficit= withholding reinforcement until behaviour occurs, rather than applying punishment for not performing behaviour) Deciding How to Manage the Consequences to manage consequences effectively, guidelines: specify behavioural criteria for earning tokens exchange rates for backup reinforcers
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