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Chapter 6

PSYB45 Chapter 6

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Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 6 Punishment Punishment has three parts: 1. A particular behaviour occurs 2. A consequence immediately follows the behaviour 3. As a result, the behaviour is less likely to occur again in the future(decreases) and after that only we can say that a particular consequence is punishing A punisher (an aversive stimulus): is a consequence that makes a particular behaviour less likely to occur in the future For example, Juan always hits his sisters and then receives spanking and scolding from his mother and he stops hitting but then continues to hit in the future, therefore this is not considered punishment since the behaviour only stops at the time of spanking and scolding but continues to occur in the future Positive Punishment Negative Punishment The occurrence of a behaviour The occurrence of a behaviour Is followed by the presentation of an aversive Is followed by the removal of a reinforcing stimulus stimulus As a result, the behaviour is less likely to occur As a result, the behaviour is less likely to occur in in the future the future An example of a positive punishment would be the presentation of an electric shock (aversive stimulus) every time a child with intellectual disabilities hit themselves *Difference between extinction and punishment... both decrease a behaviour, however, with extinction it usually takes longer for the behaviour to decrease and extinction burst usually occurs where the behaviour increases briefly before it decreases. With punishment, the decrease in behaviour is immediate and there is no extinction burst. Examples of negative punishment are time-out positive reinforcement and response cost *difference between extinction and negative punishment...extinction involves the withholding of the behaviour that was maintaining the behaviour while negative punishment involves removing or withdrawing the positive reinfocrer after the behaviour. For example a child interrupts his parents and the behaviour is reinforced by his parents. Extinction would be that the parents stop giving him attention while negative punishment would involve the loss of some other reinforce e.g allowance Response cost is a negative punishment procedure used most often by researchers to decrease late arrivals for supper by youths, when youths arrived late they lost some of the points they had earned and as a result late arrivals decreased until the youths always showed up on time Unconditioned punishers: are natural aversive events acquired without any prior training or experience e.g extreme heat or cold, extreme levels of stimulation Conditioned punishers: are events or stimuli that function as punishers ONLY after being paired with unconditioned punishers or other existing conditioned punishers e.g the word NO , when a parent no a child who is reaching an electric outlet, the child would be less likely to reach it again in the future. Another example would be threats since they have been paired with painful stimulation in the past Generalized conditioned punisher: the word no since it has been paired with a variety of other conditioned and unconditioned punishers over that course of a person’s life Speeding tickets or parking tickets are conditioned punishers since they are paired with the loss of money as well as a parent’s warning since it is paired with the loss of allowance
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