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Chapter 3

HR Chapter 3.doc

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Steve Risavy

Chapter 3: Designing and Analyzing Jobs Organizing work • Organization structure refers to the relationships among jobs in the workplace • Organization Charts o Used to show the different structures o Clarifies who’s in command and who is accountable for what o There are three basic types of structures: 1. Bureaucratic structure o A typical educational institution o Top-down management approach o Many levels and hierarchical communication channels and career paths o Highly specialized jobs with narrowly defined job descriptions o Focus on independent performance 2. Flat structure o A typical retail organization o Decentralized management approach o Few levels and multi-directional communication o Broadly defined jobs, with general descriptions o Emphasis on teams and on customer service 3. Boundaryless structure o An alliance of three companies that pool their resources to produce a new product or to provide and innovative service o Joint ventures with customers, suppliers and / or competitors o Emphasis on teams whose members may cross organizational boundaries Job Design • Job Design  process of organizing work into tasks required for a job • Job  group of related activities/duties for one or more employees • Position  collection of tasks/responsibilities performed by one person Job Design Considerations • In behavioural considerations employees are starting to identify with the job (employees also rotate jobs) • ergonomics –figuring out what is the human interaction Specialization and industrial engineering considerations • the substitute of machine power for people, emerged the correlation between (1) job specialization and (2) productivity and efficiency • work simplification – work can be broken down into clearly defined, highly specialized, repetitive tasks to maximize worker and operating efficiency • industrial engineering -- is concerned with analyzing work methods and establishing time standards to improve efficiency Beahvioural considerations • job enlargement (horizontal loading)– involves assigning workers additional tasks at the same level of responsibility to increase the number of tasks they have to perform o reduces monotony and fatigue by expanding the job cycle and drawing on a wider range of employee skills • job rotation – involves systematically moving employees from one job to another to motivate employees • job enrichment (vertical loading) – involves increasing autonomy and responsibilities by allowing employees to assume a greater role in the decision-making process o can occur through increasing the level of difficulty, more authority, providing feedback, adding new tasks requiring training, responsibility to perform a whole job etc. • team-based job designs (heavily increasing)– a small group of people with complementary skills, who work toward common goals for which they hold joint responsibility and accountability o organizations are using “virtual teams” which is efficient across boundaries of time and space, and using software to make team meetings more productive Human Engineering Considerations • human engineering (ergonomics)seeks to integrate and accommodate the physical needs of workers into the design of jobs o adapt the work, environment, machines, equipment, and processes to match human characteristics o important to all employees not just those with special needs o people who are satisfied with the physical set-up of their workstations have higher job satisfaction Job Characteristics Model • core job characteristics define a happy, health job • it proposes that employee motivation and satisfaction are directly linked to five core characteristics: o 1. Skill variety o 2. Task identity o 3. Task significance o 4. Autonomy o 5. Feedback • These core job characteristics create the conditions that enable workers to experience three critical psychological states that are related to a number of beneficial work outcomes o 1. Experience meaningfulness o 2. Experienced responsibility o 3. Knowledge of results • The linkage between job characteristics, psychological states and work outcomes is determined by the intensity of an individuals employees need for growth The Nature of Job Analysis • Job Analysis --procedure for determining: o tasks, duties and responsibilities of a job o human attributes (knowledge, skills, abilities) KSA’s required to perform a job  these are the core abilities of what you have in a job description • knowing the actual requirements of jobs is essential for planning future staffing needs Uses of Job Analysis Information HR planning -knowing the actual requirements of jobs is essential for planning future staffing needs -it also determines which jobs can be filled internally and which will require external recruitment Recruitment and Selection -used to decide what sort of person to recruit and hire Compensation -job evaluation should be based on the required skills, physical and mental demands/responsibilities and working conditions (overtime pay and max hours) Performance Appraisal -directly related to the duties and responsibilities identified through job analysis Labour relations -job descriptions are subject to union approval before being finalized Training, development, and career management -mangers can prepare for gaps that require training programs -employees can prepare for future advancements by identifying gaps between their current KSA’s and those specified for the jobs which they aspire Job Design -description of job sometimes leads to the identification of unnecessary requirements, areas of conflict or health/safety concerns that can be eliminated through job redesign Steps in Job Analysis 1. Identify what the information will be used for 2. Review relevant background information such as organization charts, process charts and existing job descriptions a. Process chart shows the flow of inputs and outputs from the job under study 3. Select representative positions/jobs to be analyzed 4. Analyze the job by collecting data on job activities, working condi
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