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Chapter 2

ADMS 2400 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Workplace Bullying, Long-Term Memory, Negativity Bias

Administrative Studies
Course Code
ADMS 2400
Sabrina Deutsch Salamon

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Social Perception & Attribution Factors Influencing Individual Behavior
Perception: The process of interpreting one’s environment. A rational process that enables us to
interpret and understand our surroundings.
Social Cognition: How people perceive one another (social information processing).
Process underlying perception involves a 4 STAGE SEQUENCE:
Stage 1: Selective Attention/Comprehension
Attention: Being consciously aware of something or someone. Comes in 2 forms, information from the
environment or from memory.
Salient (Noticeable) Stimuli: Something that stands out from its context.
Example: A driver with his gas gauge on empty, a Petro-Canada sign is more salient (noticeable) than a
McDonald’s or Tim Horton’s.
People have the tendency to pay more attention to negative than positive information.
Stage 2: Encoding and Simplification
Information is not stored in its original form. Encoding is required.
Schema: Mental picture of an event of object. To make a schema meaningful, rational category labels
are needed.
Example: Sports car, if you picture a 2 door, small red colors vehicle a sports car. That is your schema,
means you will interpret all red, small 2 door cars sports cars.
Varying interpretations of what we observe occur due to four key reasons:
1) Different information in the schema
2) Moods and Emotions influence our focus of attention and evaluations of others
3) People tend to apply recently-used rational categories during encoding.
a. You would more likely interpret a natural behavior exhibited as positive if you were
recently thinking about positive categories and events.
4) Individual differences influence encoding.
a. Pessimistic or depress individuals tend to interpret their surroundings more
negatively than optimistic and happy people do.

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Stage 3: Storage and Retention
This stage involves storage of information in long-term memory.
Event Memory; Contains information about specific and general events. Going to a restraint, going to
job interview, going to a food store or going to a movie.
Semantic Memory; General knowledge about the world. Functions as a mental dictionary of concepts.
Each concept contains a definition and associated traits.
Person Memory; Contain information about a single individual or groups of people.
Stage 4: Retrieval and Response
People retrieve information from memory when they make judgments and decisions.
Based on either:
The process of drawing on, interpreting, and integrating categorical information stored in long-
term memory.
Retrieving a summary judgment that was already made. Example: New boss was accused but
not found guilty of workplace bullying.
Managerial Implications
Interviewers make hiring decisions based on their impression of how an applicant fits the
perceived requirements of a job.
Implicit Cognition: Any thought or belief that is automatically activated without conscious
o Many hiring decisions are made by implicit cognition
Enables people to make biased decisions without understanding that such is
To reduce implicit cognition experts recommend 2 solutions:
o Train managers to understand and reduce this type of hidden bias
o Use structured as opposed to unstructured interviews. Rely on multiple interviewers.
Performance Appraisal
Faulty perception about what constitutes good versus poor performance can lead to inaccurate
performance appraisals, which erode work motivation, commitment and loyalty.
Evaluate employee in the beginning of the review cycle to serve as a benchmark.
Objective, quantifiable (attendance records) are better than Subjective, qualitative (bias).
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