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Chapter 6

Motivation - Chapter 6.docx

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York University
Organization Studies
ORGS 1000
Frank Miller

Motivation Enterprise Rent-A-Car - Motivation is key to the organization because of the long hours of work - Promotion based on comparison; must be in top half of comparison group, three times within six month period - When promoted, profit-sharing system kicks in Motivation - It is a set of energetic forces that determine the direction, intensity and persistence of an employee’s work effort - Motivated employees move faster and longer - Motivation dictates the direction in which the employees effort is channelled - Motivation dictates how hard the employee works - Engagement: most often refers to motivation, but can refer to affective commitment; employees completely invest themselves and energies into their jobs o Outwardly: employees devoting a lot of energy to their jobs, striving as hard as they can to take initiative and get the job done o Inwardly: engaged employees focus great deal of attention and concentration on work What Are Some Employees More Motivated Than Others? Expectancy Theory - Describes the cognitive process employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses - Argues that employee behaviour is directed toward pleasure and away from pain or toward certain outcomes and away from others - Depends on three beliefs based on past learning and experience (expectancy, instrumentality and valence) Expectancy - Represents belief that exerting high level of effort will result in successful performance on some task - Sometimes, people believe that their effort, no matter how hard they try, will not get a desired outcome - Self-efficacy: belief that a person has the capabilities needed to perform the behaviours required on some task o Refers to task specific version of self esteem o Employees will perceive higher levels of expectancy; choose to exert higher levels of effort o People tend to evaluate their own performance in prior projects of similar nature o Dictated by verbal persuasion and emotional cues Instrumentality - Belief that successful performance will result in some outcome(s) - Set of subjective probabilities that successful performance will bring set of outcomes - Ex: reading a specific chapter of a book is instrumental for getting a good grade Valence - Refers to the anticipated value of outcome(s) associated with successful performance - Positive valence: salary increases, bonuses and more informal rewards - Negative valence: disciplinary actions, demotions and termination - Employees are motivated; successful performance helps them attain attractive outcomes - Needs: groups/clusters of outcomes viewed as having critical psychological or physiological consequences o Refer to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs - Extrinsic motivation: desire to put forth work effort due to some contingency that depends on task performance o Pay, benefits, support, job security, lac of disciplinary action, demotions and terminations - Intrinsic motivation: desire to put forth work effort due to sense that task performance serves as its own reward o Lack of boredom, anxiety and frustration, enjoyment, interestingness, skill development - Need to understand that different cultures have different motivators - Meaning of money: idea that money can have symbolic value (achievement, respect, freedom) in addition to economic value Motivational Force - Direction of effort is dictated by expectancy, instrumentality and valence - Motivational force = (E  P) x {sum of all (P  O) x V} - Suggest that motivation increases as successful performance is link to more attractive outcomes - Essential to believe that you can perform well to have any motivation Goal Setting Theory - Views goals at the primary drivers of intensity and persistence of effort - Goals must attain specific standard of proficiency and within specified time limit - Specific and difficult goals: goals that stretch an employee to perform at max level while staying within boundaries of his/her ability - It is essential to change the goals that people set for themselves; “you can take a horse to water, but you can’t make it drink” - Self-set goals: internalized goals that people use to monitor own progress o Helps people consider different ways for reaching their goals - Intensity and persistence is maximized between difficult and impossible goal difficulty - Feedback: in goal setting theory, it refers to progress updates on work goals - Task complexity: degree o which the information and actions needed to compete a task are complicated - Goal commitment: degree to which a person is determined to reach the
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