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HIST 1001-B Feb 19,2013.docx

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HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

March 19, 2013 The Great War (World War I) (1914-1918) Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary (d. 1914) Sarajevo “Blank Check” Ivan Bloch (1836-1902) Schlieffen Plan Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria) Allies (France, Britain, Russia (Until December 1917)), Italy, US (As of April 1917) Trench Warfare Total War Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) The Fourteen Points League of Nations George Clemenceau (1841-1929) David Lloyd George (1863-1945) Treaty of Versailles (1919) Czar Nicholas II (d. 1918) Russian Revoution of 1905 Russian Revolution of 1917 Alexander Kerensky (1881-1970) Petrograd Soviet Vladimir Ilyich Lenin Bolsheviks Leo Trotsky (1879-1940) Reds v. Whites Neo Economic Policy (NEP) (1921-1928) • President Woodrow Wilson was determined to create a peaceful world through his plan: the 14points, progressive man, if men and women take a rational, educational approach, they can make the world a better place • Believes that humans can study the problems of the world, figure out what they are and then figure out solution • 14 points are roadmap for creating stability • 14 points have 3 major components • Abolish secret treaties • Because all of them were secret, it was impossible for one to know the reactions of their actions • 1) Open treaties, that way everyone can know the diplomatic actions • 2) Promised that each national and ethnic group could have their own nation, he was popular in Eastern Europe, middle east, Africa and Asia, anti-colonialist empire • 3) Sought to create the “League of Nations” • French President wanted to keep Germany down, invaded Germany twice now, German economy was destroyed • France now exacted revenge on Germany because of the actions that Germany took against France during the Franco-Prussian war • Britain and US could be more lenient on Germany, their land was unscathed • France demanded Germany territory on the Rhine and they demanded money from the Germans • David Lloyd George, Britain PM wanted to hold on to the colonies that they had, seeing the break up of areas, they wanted to increase colonial land • Germany had to pay war reparations and had to take full blame for WWI • In 1919, in the peace conference, Germany had no choice but to approve the treaty of Versailles with no say • The fear of revolution is strong, there is a spectre of communist revolution, revolution broke out in Russia and Germany • Feared that Russian communism would spread through Europe • This fear to punish Germany • Wilson gave away a lot in the treaty to GB and France • Wilson rejected the League of Nations, would not join it • Russia on edges of Europe was last of the Great nations to industrialize • Abortive Liberal revolution in Russia that had failed • Throughout the 19 century, the tensions that we had seen elsewhere also amounted in Russia • Russia was most feudal and aristocratic of the countries • Russia’s military, industry, etc. was very behind, its serfs were free only in 1861, almost 80 years after France • This was mostly done to prevent revolution in the country side • Demand was mostly unmet as Russia’s tsars were based on secret police • Russia continued to modernize its transportation and industrial sectors • There was a large industrial urban population • Middle class and worker’s grievances, they wanted more • For Russia, revolution came in 1905, 57 years after rest of Europe • Russia had lost a disastrous war against Japan • Loss infuriated Russians • Once middle class got its wishes from government and the tsar agreeing to be a constitutional Monarchy • As soon as he felt safe, the Tsar reversed most of the things granted • Middle class and workers were mostly shut out of politics • Russians feeling the effects of the war, facing defeat and starving at home revolted against the government, poor women demanding bread helped spur the revolution • In 1917, the women demanded bread, the march became a riot • The parliament declared a provisional government under Alexander Kerensky • Rejoiced in unlimited personal freedom • A competitive man, the Petrograd Soviet (soviet means council) • It gave orders contradicting that of the government, encouraging soldiers to disobey their officers • Fear that they would use army against workers • Provisional government under Kerensky, Russia sank into Anarchy, Germans were desperate to end the war in Germany let one of the leaders, Lenin, to cross Germany territory in 1917, hoped that Lenin, like a virus, would further Russian chaos and further harm the Russian war effort • Lenin was a dedicated Marxist, Industrial society should be placed in hand of workers and peasants, it could be achieved only through violent revolution • They did not support the war effort • War between capitalist • Lenin had a small group of followers who were dismissive of democracy in the
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