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HIST 1001-B Jan 29,2013.docx

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HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

Hist- Jan. 29,2013 Conservatism/liberalism/socialism Edmund Burke (1729-1797) Reflections on the Revolution in France Carlsbad Decrees (1819) • Understand political and cultural conflicts in these centuries • The “-isms” threaten to tear the kingdom apart, Kings and rulers are not happy about it • Result of congress of Vienna, Europe is rationalized • No one can “invade” their neighbours and revolutionary ideas are quashed • Balance of power is to ensure peace and stability • Victorious powers return to Vienna ( after the battle of Waterloo) and fined France for their “misbehaviour” • France is most important country in Europe at that point • Basic structure of Europe was set for years, the major powers would not fight another war with each other for another 100 years • There were many tensions of the congress within the countries • 4 major ideologies developed in Europe and America, tried to explain and justify their respective revolutions (America and France) • “Twin revolutions” -> revolution in industry and revolution in politics • Tugging and tearing at the people of the West • Both kinds of revolution lead to reordering of society • Thinkers, both who opposed and supported these developments had to create a criticism to make sense of these changes • Nationalism, conservatives, liberalism and socialism = dominated the debate up to WWI • Nationalism -> a group of people can be united, people think of themselves first as French, German, etc rather than class, family, etc. • With nationalism, you’re fighting for yourself, your family and your nation • Idea of equal justice and opportunity under law • Nationalism is a potent weapon that can be utilized for good or evil • Nationalism can serve evil, as it did for Nazis, the Japanese, etc. • Often, such nationalism is meant to distract people or justify oppression of a ruler’s enemies • Conservatives feared the ideology of the French revolution, these people were hierarchy, they were often immune to lawsuits and were above the law. • Commoners were to treat them with respect simply by virtue of who their parents were • Farmers and peasants worked their land and paid them for rent and land • Conservatives feared change and any move that would take power away from them and give it to the commoners • The work at the congress of Vienna was aimed at working to keep the Conservative ideology • People who sought to keep the benefits of conserving the old order supported a conservative ideology • The most influential is British Statesman Edmund Burke • Burke spent much of his life calling attention to the oppressive rule of Britain on India • He knew about the exploitation • Burke was horrified by what he saw as the ‘danger’ of the French revolution, wrote a condemnation of it in 1790 • Burke believed that the existing order of Europe (hereditary rulers, established churches and hardworking commoners) reflected the best way to have European societies • Impose some new brand of social model based on some intellectual’s plan • Such attempts to reorder society on a new intellectual model would fail, as a result, chaos, greed and immortality would have happen • Burke is the grandfather of conservative intellectual thought in Europe and America • The conservatives in Vienna used force and political oppression in their own country and empires to prevent the spread of liberal or socialist ideals • Russia, Prussia and Austria -> repressed Conservative ideals • In 1819, Von Metternich and Germany agreed to repressed anyone who wrote something contrary to Conservatives, newspapers were censored Universities came under government surveillance, could go to prison or exiled if you went up against them Laissez-Faire Adam Smith (1723 – 1790), Wealth of Nations (1776) David Richardo (1772-1823) Samuel Smiles, Self-Help (1859) Josiah Wedgewood (1730-1795) Socialism Karl Marx (1818-1883) “Communist Manifesto” (1848) Bourgeoisie Proletariat • Aristocratic, noble men and women controlled huge amounts of land and their wealth was based o
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