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Lecture 8

BUS 272 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Problem Solving, Dont, Best Alternative To A Negotiated Agreement


Department
Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Professor
Lieketen Brummelhuis
Lecture
8

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BUS 272: ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
CHAPTER 8- NOTES
CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION
CONFLICT is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has affected
or is about to negatively affect something that the first party cares about.
Conflict describes a point when an interaction becomes interparty disagreement.
Conflict can occur between
Two people
Within a group
Between groups
Functions vs Dysfunctional Conflict:
The oflits that iproe a group’s perforae, ad support the goals of the group, are
hence constructive in nature and are called functional conflict. It energizes debate, and
increases team cohesion.
The conflicts that hinder group performance, are dysfunctional or destructive form of
conflicts. When the group is not able to achieve its goals due to a conflict, then this conflict
is dysfunctional in nature.
DysfunctionalRelationship conflict (affective)
Aims conflict at the person (e.g. their competence), not the task or issue.
Based on perceptual biases.
Hinders group performance.
Psychologically exhausting.
Focuses on interpersonal relationships.
FunctionalConstructive conflict (cognitive)
Conflict is aimed at issue, maintain respect for parties and their views. This can be
task and process conflict. Task conflict relates to content and goals of the work.
Process conflict relates to about how work gets done.
Prevents groupthink, more creative solutions.
Supports the goals of the group and improves its performance.
Important observations from some studies:
Task conflict among top management teams was positively associated with their
performance, whereas conflict lower in the organization was negatively associated
with their performance.
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If task and relationship conflict occurred together, task conflict was more likely
negative, whereas if task conflict occurs by itself, it was more likely positive.
If task conflict is very low, people are not very engaged or addressing the issues. If
task conflict is high, however, infighting will quickly degenerate into personality
conflict.
Process conflicts revolve around delegation and roles.
Loci of conflict
1. Dyadic conflict: Conflict between 2 people
2. Intragroup conflict: Occurs within a group or team
3. Intergroup conflict: Conflict between groups or teams
Reasons for relationship/persoanlity conflicts?
Misunderstandings- based on (gender, age, race, or cultural) value differences
Intolerance, prejudice, discrimination, and bigotry
Perceived inequities
Rumours or falsehoods
Blaming (finger-pointing)
Sources of conflicts:
1. COMMUNICATION- Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, noise in the
communication channels. Example: Differing word connotations, jargons, insufficient
exchange of information, and noise in the communication channel are all barriers to
communication and potential antecedent conditions to conflict.
2. STRUCTURE: Conflict may be as a consequence of the requirements of the job or in
the workplace more than personality.
Size, specialisation and composition of the group: Large size, higher
degree of specialisation, and younger task force leads to conflicts.
The greater the ambiguity in defining where responsibilities lie, the
greater the chance of conflict.
Reward systems create oflits he oe eer’s gai is at aother
eer’s epese. Ufair ealuatios are also iluded.
Leadership style can create conflict if managers tightly control and
oversee the work of employees, allowing employees little discretion in
how they carry out work.
The diversity of goals also creates conflicts. Example, Sales team promises
products not yet developed by the production team.
If one group is dependent on another, or if interdependence allows one
group to gain at the expense of the other group(s).
3. PERSONAL VARIABLES: Includes personality, emotions, and values. People high in
personality traits of disagreeableness, neuroticism, or self-monitoring are prone to
tangle with other people more often, and to react poorly when conflicts occur.
Emotions can also cause conflicts even when they are not directed at others.
If you are having a personality conflict. For instance, with your team members.
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