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Chapter 5 Notes

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Management (MGH)
Ted Mock

Lecture NotesChapter FiveMotivationWhat is motivationIt is the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goalEffortmotivation reflect the amount of effortDifferent types of jobs require different effortsThe key point is that the effort can vary eg The same person doing the same task at different times can use different amounts of effortObviously different people doing the same task may use different amounts of effortThis is also the concept of discretionary effortthe individual uses hisher own discretion in choosing the amount of effort that will be usedSince motivation comes from within effort is discretionaryOrganizations naturally want to increase discretionary effortPersistenceconsistency of effortDirectionis effort channeled in a direction that benefits the organizationWorking smart as well as working hardGoalseffort and direction are oriented toward achieving a goal or an outcomeExtrinsic and Intrinsic MotivationAre people motivated persistent effort toward a goal by factors in the external environment pay or supervision or by something within the person himher selfThe answer is probably both but it depends upon the worker and the situationIntrinsic Motivationstems from the direct relationship between the worker and the taskThe motivation comes from within and may be influenced by the opportunity to do creative work to solve challenging tasks to have autonomy in deciding how the work will be done or by a sense of accomplishment from achieving goalsExtrinsic Motivationstems from the work environmentIt usually applied by others Herzberg1959 referred to these as KITA factors kick in the assThey may include pay and incentivesThe link between motivation and performanceThere is not a direct link between motivation and job performance as there are many intervening variablesA highly motivated employee is not always the best performer and an employee with average motivation may produce above average resultsThe intervening variables may includeBig Five factorsSelfesteemSelfefficacyLocus of controlGeneral cognitive ability also called G or IQintelligence quotientEmotional Intelligence also called EITask understanding KSAsknowledge skills and abilitiesChanceluckrandom occurrencesGeneral cognitive abilitya persons basic information processing capacities and cognitive resourcesIt includes verbal numerical spatial and reasoning abilities that are required to perform mental tasksG predicts learning and training success as well as job performance in jobs including both those that require manual and mental tasksIt is a better predictor for jobs that require higher level cognitive skills and more information processingIn other words both motivation and G are required for performanceEmotional Intelligenceability to understand and manage ones own and others feelings and emotions Salovey and Mayer 1990Their model consists of four interrelated and sequential steps1perception of emotionsperceive and accurately identify ones own emotions and the emotions of othersSources of information might include faces nonverbal cues tone of voice language2integration and assimilation of emotionsuse the information from step one in making decisionsAlso includes being able to shift ones emotions and generate new emotions to help one see things in different ways3knowledge and understanding of emotionsunderstand how different situations and event generate different emotions and how others are influenced by different emotions4management of emotionsmanage ones own and others emotions as well as emotional relationships eg Staying calm when you feel upset being able to excite or enthuse others being able to lower anothers angerThere is conflicting evidence in the link between emotional control and job performanceSome evidence suggests that EI can predict success in jobs that require a high level of EI eg Police officer or customer service repRecent evidence indicated that the relationship between EI and G is compensatory in the prediction of job performanceIn other words EI is important for job performance of employees with lower G and less important with employees with high levels of GIn other words higher level of EI can compensate for a lower level of GWhat is meant by employee engagement and how is it different from motivationRecent survey shows thatonly 17 of employees are highly engaged at work66 are moderately engaged and
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