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PSYC18 Psychology of Emotion Lecture 2:
Plato (429-347 BCE):
There are 3 parts to the soul:
1) Reason t cognition and reasoning, critical thinking, trapped in head
2) Passion t part of the body, in charge of things like motivation, urging us to do things
- the source of complex emotions t located in the chest
3) Appetite- most immortal part of the soul t involved with sensual desires, hunger
- located in the belly t sex + food
Functions, location, religious/moral treatment?
- Sensible vs. intelligible distinction maintained
Implications for Education:
,}ÁÁovYWo}[theory of forms t genuine knowledge you are born with
- Abstract ideas, information that is unchanged, eternal
Goal of education: reawaken what is already known
Is sensory information useful? E}Z}µov[(}µ}vv]}v
- Episteme vs. Doxa (sensory information)
- Doxa t is an approx of genuine info, can change across situations t not useful
Aristotle (384-322 BCE)
- Proposed three psyches:
1) Nutritive and Reproduction
2) Sensitive t u}}uoÆUv]uo[}µot can accomplish things Nutritive psyche can AND
can do other things, allow sensation and emotion t pleasure and pain
3) Rational t abstract reasoning, thinking before you make a decision, engage in complex types
of memory recall
- Emotion in the sensitive
- Reason and emotion in the rational
- Thus, emotion is unchecked in animals! t psyche is not complex enough to engage in reasoning
o Reasoning is able to control emotions
- Reasoning valued over Emotion by Aristotle
Implications for Education
- Knowledge can be attained thru sensory and emotional experiences
- There are no innate universals!
- Tabula rasa t ^Zu]v]ovlo_
For Aristotle, what is the nature of emotional experience?
- Emotions depend on evaluation of others, how you feel about them
o Why does this mean that emotions come from us? Emotions depend on your own
perspective, your values, and what you think about the world and yourself, the
standards you set
- Ex: Evaluating -> feeling
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Want a persuasive persona?
1) Act like a good person
2) Make your argument seem honest
3) Evoke emotions t make people feel something
- if you want to persuade people is to evoke emotions but the type of emotion to evoke, you
need to get to know the person then to evoke the emotion that fits that person
Epicureanism & Stoicism
- The Hellenistic Period t when and what was it like?
o civil war, invasions, a lot of violence and poverty, chaotic time, very unstable
- Sparta vs. Athens, Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC)
- civil war in Greece t invaded by Rome
Epicureans & Stoics agree that:
- ^'}}o](_}voÇZ]ÀÇ understanding & properly managing }v[u}]}v
o properly managing emotions and prevent them from happening
- Suppression vs. Prevention
- Find out what causes emotions and avoid those activities
Resultant emphasis on
- What causes emotions?
- What physical & mental activities need to be avoided?
- Moderation underlies happiness t excess consumption leads to ruin
- Greatest threat to happiness is excessive consumption t only basic needs are needed
- Is pleasure banned? No, but do not take pleasure in consuming more than you need for survival
o Take pleasure in friendship with others, will lead to highest form of happiness
o Enjoy what is essential for life t humble fare
Broader philosophy about human nature?
Emotional Animal vs. Rational Human t emotions are there to push us to evolve, but if we are not
careful emotions can overwhelm us and make us no diff from animals, need to exert self-control
(reasoning) need to be cold hearted and rational
- Should not have goals that relate to things that are excessive t wanting, getting drunk, etc.
- Epicureans t Do not desire more than is needed
- Stoicism t Do not desire at all
- Go with what you are given
o Nature follows a divine plan, your life is predetermined
- Religion: predestination t accept your allotted life
Roman Empire and Christianity:
- Roman Empire Adopts Christianity as official religion (380 CE)
o New treatment of the classics Aristotle + Plato
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