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Psychology 1000
Erica Lawson

January 10 , 2012 Lecture #1 – Language Chapter 9 – Language Basic Characteristics What are the properties of a language?  Anatomy  All spoken language is nothing more than producing sounds produced by the lungs which vibrates the vocal cord and comes in contact with the palate, lips, tongue etc. which produces all the sounds  Semanticity  Meaningful – language is semantic, the words that we use communicates something and we can understand it  As long as we share the common code we can understand it  Generativity  Ability to use finite number of words and rules to produce infinite number of sentences  Displacement  Convey information about other times and places – past, future – we can put into language and is used to convey certain concepts  Organization  Language is structured – generates rules and production Sentence – the strangers left Phrase – The strangers Words – The Strangers Morpheme – Strange Er S Phonemes – Strewnj Er Z  Words  Good, unabridged dictionary 250, 000 to 300, 000 words  Student vocabulary 150, 000 words  Most anything in English can be said with a vocabulary of 850 words  Telephone conversations: 96% of “talk” made up of 737 words  Correlation word frequency & word length Syntax How does syntax provide meaning to language? Syntax is arranging the elements in a “meaningful” way  Proper Structure  Importance of Grammar  EX. The wicked vampire bites the girl  Noun phrases have two parts (article and nominal)  Article: The  Nominal(Adjective and noun): Wicked Vampire Humour  Their ability to “appreciate” ambiguous meaning & logical inconsistency 1. Phonological Ambiguity  Confusion of sounds 2. Lexical Ambiguity  Confusion or double meaning of words – “I work as a baker because I knead the dough” 3. Syntactic Ambiguity  Confusion in structure 4. Symantic Ambiguity  Confusion of Meaning  Ralph: Call me a cab Fred: Okay, you’re a cab  Kids progress from phonological & lexical to syntactic & semantic Noam Chomsky – EXAM  Transformational Grammar  Surface Structure – Sequence of words VS. Deep Structure – Actual meaning  Rules transform Ex of Surface: “Flying planes can be dangerous” Deep Structure 1 – Planes are dangerous Deep Structure 2 – Piloting a plane is dangerous Language Learning Is language learned?  Result of imitation and reinforcement? – not really  Yes, child does learn that “dog” not “perro” or “chien” applies in English  But… Trick is creativity Also Mistakes in grammar not corrected (facts are)  So what happens? From 1 moments of life, infants vocalize – cry, coo, babble etc.  True even for dead infants – babbling has no conventional meaning, but takes on a social quality in hearing infants (rules of interaction)  By 2 months, infants show phoneme discrimination- sucking rates for “PA” vs. “BA”  Sensitive to foreign contrasts drops as infant approaches 12 months. – this suggests  Infants are “hard – wired” for language acquisition January 12 , 2011 Lecture #2 – Thinking & Problem Solving Language Learning How do infants acquire language?  “Motherese”  high pitch, slow rate, exaggerated tone  Adults shift “automatically” into that particular tonal talk to babies  Asian/Sub Saharan cultures do not engage in “motherese”  Infants prefer this type of speech to normal adult speech  Learning about pausing, pitch, characteristics, etc. The One-Word Speaker  5 to 8 months of age, respond to parents’ words  Talking begins 10 to 20 months  Early vocabulary simple – really using one word at a time, some vocabulary but they don’t have a lot of words  Ex. Nouns (Mama, Duck), Interactions (Hi, Peekaboo), Adjectives (Hot, Big)  Number one word for infants: NO  Likely to contain objects that infant can manipulate (“ball” more likely that “ceiling”)  Note: Difficult to tell what kids mean when they use single words – tend to undergeneralize The Two – Word Speaker  Telegraphic Speech  Starts around 2 years old  Vocabulary includes several hundred words  Ex. “give water”  Speech shows proper organization  Ex. “Throw Ball” not “Ball Throw” – picked up syntax that has worked in through some other means (many would argue that syntax is almost inborn/hardwired)  But 2 ½ years, child moves beyond 2 words and sentences become more complex  Start searching for rules of generalization  The 4 or 5 year old makes mistakes in tense  Ex. “runned” not “ran”, “eated” not “ate”  Child now overgeneralizes rules  Formal schooling takes over Nature vs. Nurture  So far, it seems as if the brain is “hard – wired” for language  Will language develop on its own? 1. Wild Children – NO  Children brought up by a pack of wolves  Consider Amala (1.5 years) & Kamala (8 years)  Raised by a pack of wolves after being lost in the woods  Sharp teeth, sniffed, slept rolled up together on the floor, ate raw meat 2. Isolated Children – MAYBE  Isabelle (6 years old)  YES  Genie (14 year old)  NO 3. No Models  MAYBE  EX. Deaf kids with hearing parents who do not sign  Kids develop own signs with rudimentary syntax 4. Other Animals  NO  EX. Chimp?  Basics only  No real syntax  No propositional thought  Seems unlikely given data on wild & isolated children Critical Period Even with “innate” abilities, experience may be critical at a particular developmental phase  EX. White – Crowned Sparrow  Must be exposed to adult song 7 – 60 day of life  Human language?  3 months – early teens Heuristic Processing What is thought? Thought and Language  What is a thought?  Directed thinking  Thought & language are closely related  “Inner Speech”  Thought is best described in abstract, logical terms Concepts & Propositions Concept  Categories, Collections of related elements  Ex. City  New York, Paris, London, Toronto  Ex. Entertainment  Movies, TV, Music Proposition  A statement about concepts, may be true or false  Ex. Cities are larger than towns  Note: Concepts and propositions imply much more that the words we use to express them Organization of Thought  Hierarchical Structure  Implies that there is a relationship between high level and low level elements  Goal – Directed  Schema – Driven The way we structure “thinking” into schema – driven hierarchies is learned by experience with a particular problem  Consider average chess players vs. grand masters  But schemas can lead us in the wrong direction  We might ignore important information Heuristics  Kahneman & Tversky  Representativeness  Insensitivity to Sample Size  Availability  Framing Effect  The way you frame a question, changes how you react/respond to a question January 17 , 2012 Lecture #3 Chapter 10 – Intelligence Problem Solving How do we solve problems?  Sternberg & Davidson (1982)  Correct solutions to “insight” problems involve 1. Selective Encoding: Get rid of irrelevant information 2. Selective Combination: Put stuff together in the right ways 3. Selective Comparison: Understand what’s going on Psychometric Approach What is Intelligence?  A host of abilities – Memory, creativity  What a test measures – but tests can be misleading  Several studies indicate that unschooled people in remote villages cannot solve syllogisms (logical puzzles)  Suggests the preliterate people do not (or cannot) use logical analysis  Equating intelligence with logistics – suggests what might be true Scribner (1977)  All pelle men are rice farmers, Mr. Smith is not a rice farmer. Is he a Kpelle man?  Ecological approach How do you measure intelligence? Psychometric Approach Galton  1869  Relatives of intelligent people  Realizes he can measure intelligence (by heritability)  Starts research program to identify those with low ability  Believes that intelligence was unitary (mental quickness)  Develops correlation coefficient  Results disappointing Binet  Requests from French government (public school mandatory)  Belief that intelligence was a “collection of higher – order abilities”  No correlation  Believes that ability results from learning which completely contrasts Galton who believes your ability is inborn Binet and Simon  Develop a test in the early 1900’s tapping a number of different abilities (memory, math, etc.)  Wants to make sure he has the right things so he asks the teachers (teacher rating of the kids)  Correlates scores with teacher rating  Criterion validity: If you scored high, I think you’re intelligent, make sure the teacher thinks the same thing 1905 – 1908  Revised his tests and develop the concept of mental age introduces a  Standardized test  In order to get age norms (mean performance)  With the mean performance, you can get average for a particular group  Can assigned a new test score to mental age group according to norms  So if they child performs at a level an average 5 years old – MA = 5  Concept of I.Q. not due to Binet, rather… Terman (& Stern)  Adapts Binet scale for use in the U.S.A. while at Stanford  Stanford-Binet widely used  I.Q. = MA (mental age) / CA (chronicle age) x 100  Ex. If a child is 10 years old, but scores at the level of average 12 years old.  I.Q. = 12/10 x 100 =120  If same child scores at 8 year old level, I.Q. = 80  Note: Stanford – Binet designed for children … not appropriate for adults  Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale  WAIS – IV; Also: WISC – IV  WAIS – IV has 10 subscales with both verbal and performance measures Ex. Verbal Information – Typical Question or Problem: “What is the capital of France” Ex. Picture Arrangement – Typical Question or Problem: The test showers a series of cartoon pictures. Subject must now arrange them in proper sequences  Idea of assigning an I.Q. score based on mental age breaks down with adults  Ex. A 20 year old who scores at the age of 60 year old level  I.Q. = 60/20 x 100 = 300  Use  Deviation I.Q. (z - score) Ex. Normal Distribution Curve Normal I.Q. has a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15 – I.Q. = 115 Reliability is the consistency of measurement Validity: Does test measure what it is supposed to measure r with Achievement  Range: .3 to .7 Bias  Is the test “culture – fair” or do the answers require specific knowledge available only to certain (sub) cultures?  More than “academic” question – streaming Dove (1968) “Chitterling Test”  Bias to people who live in the USA  Culture – fair tests th January 19 , 2012 Lecture #4 – Intelligence Savant Syndrome  Dr. J.L. Down (1887)  Gave it the name “Idiot Savant” – At the time, Idiot was socially accepted  “Idiot” was accepted category of mental retardation at the time  I.Q. was less than 25  Individuals with disease excel in narrow range of abilities  Lightning – fast math  Music  Calendar calculations  Art  Mechanical or spatial abilities  Other reports of ability in  Time estimation  Sensory discrimination  ESP  Common: Music + Blind + Autistic  Can have multiple skills – not typical but have a single extraordinary skills  All skills seem to be things that we put into right hemispheric dominance  All are linked with phenomenal (but narrow) memory  Very rare – less than 100 reports of prodigious activity – does not mean that there is not more out there but 100 that have been reported and categorized as a savant  Only 25 living savants – short life span due to autism  6 times more likely in males than females What Causes Savant Syndrome? 1. Eidetic Imaging  Perhaps savants have “photographic” memory – unlikely  Calculations beyond published data  High % are blind 2. Heredity  Early studies suggests family relationship  Recent data suggests “no”  1 in 23 relatives of 5 savants 3. Sensory Deprivation  Resulting from autism – promotes intense concentration  Autistic kids most likely group to develop syndrome (1 in 10)  But 90% of autistic children do not 4. Reinforcement  Social attention serves as reward for display of talent  Many crave attention without developing exceptional talent – unlikely 5. Lateralization  Most savants have left hemisphere deficits – poor vocabulary and communication; left hemisphere is not responding in a “normal” way  Right hemisphere develops before the left hemisphere in the womb – right is more fully developed than left at any particular time – what happens if there is some element while the hemisphere is still developing?  If damage occurs while left still developing (10 – 18 week) neurons in left die off  Right hemisphere “recruits” neural connections across the corpus callosum  Effect can be triggered by testosterone Autism What are the symptoms of Autism?  Impaired social interactions  No friends – isolated, don’t hang around people, not interested in it because they are not good at communicating  No eye contact, not even with mom – babies look at mom a lot in the eyes  Impaired Communication  Limited or unusual speech – “odd” speech, limited or unusual in the way it is constructed or how it is spoken  Echolalia  Restricted behaviour, interests  Like things to “stay the same”  Ritualistic Behaviour  Ex. Spinning around, looking at hand for hours, rocking Pervasive Developmental Disorder  Three other types o Asperger’s Disorder – seem “normal” but unusual but function quite well in society o Rett’s Disorder o Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Autistic Disorder  Incidence: 1 in 150 birth  More common in males when IQ > 35  Universal – all societies in the world  Symptoms develop before 36 months Causes  Not really sure  Unlikely to be social – poor parenting  Not Vaccines (MMR)  Dr. Andrew Wakefield – standard child vaccination (Mumps, measles and rubella) actually caused autism  It would be better to give the children 3 separate vaccinations as opposed to the one that combined the three  Genetic Tag … if one child has autism, risk increases by factor of 10, 000  Brain damage likely Courchesne (1991)  MRI scans show abnormally small cerebellum  At birth, brain is normal size  By 2 – 3 year, brain much larger  Cortex & white matter “overload” the cerebellum & destroys Purkinje cells Treatment  Drugs are not really effective  Intense social stimulation, care  Effectiveness depends on IQ loss Theories What is Intelligence?  Spearman & Galton  Intelligence is unitary, one kind of item  Better statistics (factor analysis)  Looks for patterns of correlations  When you do that, you get one single factor “g” – general intelligence and the pattern of correlations will demonstrate that to you  Strong positive correlation – no 1.0, there’s specific abilities which can kick up your ability  Binet & Thurstone  “better statistics”  Independent primary mental abilities  No “g” factor  No correlation  7 Primary Abilities  Verbal comprehension  Verbal fluency  Computation  Spatial visualization  Associative memory  Perceptual speed  Reasoning  However, Guilford would argue that there are 120 abilities – multiple intelligence  Cattel  Fluid vs. Crystallized  Fluid Intelligence is raw mental ability  Crystallized is material you learn over course of lifetime  Fluid IQ drops as you get older, but crystallized IQ stays the same or increases because you’re acquiring more knowledge  Gardner  Multiple Intelligence  Explains savants system if there are multiple intelligences  Sternberg  Triarchic Theory  Three major components of intelligence: raw ability to extract info, raw ability to work with information and raw ability to store information January 24 , 2012 Lecture #5 – Nonverbal Behaviour Chapter 11 – Motivation What are the major nonverbal channels?  Paralanguage  Noncontent aspects of speech  Tone of voice  Speed  Amplitude  Rise time/ fall time  Hesitations and pauses  Facial Expressions  Typically emotions  May reflect other cognitive states such as comprehensions  Ex. Nodding, smiling  Body Movement  Kinesics: Movement, posture, etc.  Gestures: Hand Signals  Ekman & Friesen (1969)  Emblems: Meaningful substitutes  Thumbs up: Good Job  Illustrators: Accompany speech, accent, etc.  Regulators: Maintain or change speakers  Eye Contact  Looking directly into another’s eyes  Typical conversation  60% - 70% gazing  30% mutual eye contact about 1 – 3 seconds  More than 7 seconds… stare  Interpersonal Distance  Use of physical space  Personal space  Hall’s Interaction Zones  Intimate  Personal  Social – strangers in the mall (1.25 – 3.5)  Public – public activities, people speaking on a stage ( 3.5 – 7.5) January 26 , 2012 Lecture #6 – Motivation Deception  An act intended to foster a false belief in another person – deliberate; can’t accidently deceive someone  Intentional  Maintain a further interaction from the person  Ekman & Friesen (1974)  Notion of leakage – nonverbal cues that “escape” attempts to conceal  Accurate? – average close to 55%  Some people better?  Kraut & Poe (1980)  Customs officials  No they’re not  Leach at al. (2009)  Police & customs officers with children  Kids lie about what they were doing  Are they better? – police way below chance in all cases, customs official below chance but better than police Motivation – what is it that makes organisms do what they do? Control mechanisms (positive or negative feedback) Basic Biological Control 1. Orienting responses or taxes  Overall musculature response toward (positive) or away from (negative) a stimulus  Positive photo taxis in moth 2. Homeostatic Mechanisms  Maintaining a constant state Self – Regulation How do we self – regulate?  Homeostatic mechanisms  Important of Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Divisions of the Nervous System Brain Peripheral N.S. (Motor) Central N.S. Autonomic Skeletal Sympathetic Parasympathetic Sympathetic  Gears up for action  Ex. Activation  Accelerated heart rate  Inhibition of peristalsis  Vasoconstriction Parasympathetic  Conserves  Ex. Activation  Decelerated heart rate  Stimulation of peristalsis  Vasodilatation – blood vessels come back Arousal Is arousal related to emotion?  Cannon (1945)  Vegetative & Activating functions  Emergency reaction Activation of SNS  On top of kidney  Stimulation of adrenal medulla (endocrine)  Adrenaline (epinephrine) Heart rate and breathing increase break down Glucose, NE DA Result  Heightened state of arousal  Detect with polygraph  Species specific behaviour  Related to emotion Pupil Dilation  Hess & Polt (1960)  Interesting slides  Male – naked women, female – naked men and babies  Hess (1965, 1975)  Photos of females eyes  Half the photos are altered so the pupil is larger  Bayou & Dabbs (1998)  Novelty In general, Hess suggests  Pupil dilation for positive  Constriction for negative  Support was uneven but Emergency Situation  Elicits fear  Importance of: 1. Stimulus intensity – avoid intense 2. Stimulus novelty – prefer the familiar Does arousal produce pleasure?  Berlyne’s Set Point- relation between pleasure and arousal  At very high levels of arousal, we don’t like it  At very low levels of arousal, we don’t like it  Talks about the relationship between arousal level and pleasure  But there’s a relationship between arousal level and emotion MISSING LECTURE #7 February 2 , 2012 Lecture #8 – Cognitive Development Issues in Development What influences development?  Change in the abilities over time  Nature  Maturation vs. Nurture  Learning  Obvious interaction between nature and nurture  Nurture determines the range  Nurture chooses the alternatives Stagelike Development  Development is discontinuous – stages separated by periods of rapid growth  Qualitative difference Continuous Development  Smooth, continual change – there’s no stages  Quantitative difference Normative vs. Individual  Normative  Typical sequence of change  Look for consistency  Methodology is cross – sectional  Individual  Consistency not there  Look at individual  Methodology is longitudinal Neural Development How does the brain change in the new born?  100 – 200 B neurons at birth  Neurons not produced after second trimester  Increase in weight (350 – 1400 g) due to glial cells & myelination  Number of synapses increases rapidly  Cortical development “mirrors” emergence of abilities  Frontal love develops last Taste and Smell  Very much like an adults  Suck faster for sweet liquid  Reject salty liquid  Pleasant expression for bananas  Frown for rotten eggs  Suggests… hardwired – preference for sweet liquids and positive smells is hardwired for us as humans Hearing: At Birth  Responds to wide variety of sounds  Prefer complex sounds  Especially sensitive to sounds in range of human voice  First few days  Turn head toward sounds  Discriminate sound sequences Visual Development How does the visual system change over the first few months of a life? th February 7 , 2012 Lecture #9 – Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory How do young children think? Stages of Development How do these cognitive processes change over time? 1. Sensory – Motor Intelligence  O – 2 years of age  Nothing exists apart from child’s own perceptions and motor reactions  No self-concept  Look at organization of sensory and motor reactions (Piaget  Schema)  At birth, variety of reflexes  At first, schemas operate in isolation  Coordination of activities present until 5 months – at 5 months begin visually guided reaching (both hands at 7 months)  Pseuodoimitation present  Child can imitate actions, but only if actions just produced  Important of sensory (visual) feedback e.g. stick out tongue  Rough acquisition by 11 – 12 months  18 – 24 months  Efficient imitation  Representational thought  External world exists  Represented by some symbol  Object permanence 2. Preoperational Stage  2 – 7 years old  Conceptual system of higher – order schemas  Rules not fully acquired until age 7  Inability to think in abstract rules – e.g. a 4 year old fails on conservation task  Bad at conservation with numbers  Ex. Video with the red and black checkers  Preoperational kids tend to attend to only one aspect of a stimulus e.g. height, length  Older kids (5 or 6) realize that other aspects may be relevant, but do not really take them into account  7 – year old does  Reversible thinking  Egocentrism  Inability to “take the place of the other”  The 3 – mountain problem 3. Concrete Operations  7 – 11 years old  Children learn to decenter  Understand transformation and conservation  Begin to think logically but understanding still tied to physical work  Ex. (8 & 9 year old)  4 is an even number, 4 + 1 is an odd number  But not the general rule: Even + 1 = Odd 4. Formal Operations  11 years  Higher level of abstraction (like adult)  Think logically e.g. can play “20 questions” by starting generally  Younger kids simply guess Support Does everyone support Piaget?  Piaget is not consistently supported  Bundle of Reflexes?  Piaget would say no, they don’t have objective permanence  Consider object performance Kellman and Spelke (1983)  4 – month olds show a rod that moved behind a black … habituate  Question: What do kids think is behind that block?  B stood out the most (visual image, but not reality)  4 – month olds knew that there was a solid rod behind the block  In response to this, Piaget said infants “know” that objects exist, but are very inept at searching for them  Existence of their minds  We “know” that other people exist  Piaget  learning, Morton & Johnson (1991) – some “hard – wiring”  Note: may be problems in methodology as well  Conservation: “which row has more faces or do they both have the same?” February 9 2012 Lecture #10 – Social Development Critique of Piaget Was Piaget “right”?  Wimmer and Permer (1983)  False beliefs test  Child and teddy bear examine red and green box  Candy in red box  Teddy leaves the room  Experimenter and child move candy to green box  Teddy returns  where will he look for the candy?  3 & 4 year olds: green box – that’s where the candy actually is  4 ½ year old: red box – that’s where he thinks the candy is  Something else is going on there that we can’t explain because they’re in pre operational stage and they
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