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Psychology Test Two Short Answer

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

sociobiological view of helping behaviourHelping behavior refers to voluntary actions intended to help the others with reward regarded or disregarded It is a type of prosocial behavior voluntary action intended to help or benefit another individual or group of individuals such as sharing comforting rescuing and helpingAltruism is distinguished from helping behavior Altruism refers to prosocial behaviors that are carried out without expectation of obtaining external reward concrete reward or social reward or internal reward selfreward The view of sociobiologists is that altruism is genetically based and that it is therefore part of the natural order of things to sacrifice oneself for others particularly kin However observers of human interaction note that people vary greatly in their helpgiving and caretaking behaviours Thus is it apparent that socialization makes an important contribution to altruism and helping Pavlovs views about contiguity and research findings that did not support his viewsThe contiguity vs contingency views of classical conditioning 1 contiguity Pavlovs viewCC occurs when the CS and US occur together in time and space Note similarity to British associationist views 2 contingency CC occurs only when the CS provides some information ahead of time about the likelihood of the US occurringthe different ways in which the CS and US can be paired togetherIf the CS and US always occur together and never alone this perfect dependent relationship or pairing causes the two stimuli to become associated and the organism produces a behavioral response to the CS Pavlov called this the conditional response CR Because of early errors in translation of Pavlovs work from Russian to English the term conditioned rather than conditional is very often used but is not technically correct A perfect conditioner is not necessary for conditioning but the strength of the CR progressively degrades as the conditional relationship is weakenedTypes of classical conditioningForward conditioning Learning is fastest in forward conditioning During forward conditioning the onset of the CS precedes the onset of the US Two common forms of forward conditioning are delay and trace conditioning y Delay conditioning In delay conditioning the CS is presented and
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