Chapter 4 Socialization and Social Interaction.docx

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Published on 10 Oct 2012
School
Ryerson University
Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 103
SOC103 How Society Works
CHAPTER 4 Socialization and Social Interaction
MODULE 4.1 Becoming Human
Personality: an individual’s relatively stable pattern of behaviours and feelings
Nature versus nurture: the debate over whether biological forces or environment define the person we become
Socialization: life-long process by which we learn our culture, develop our personalities, and become functioning
members of society
Social interaction: the ways in which people interact in social settings which recognizing each person’s subjective
experiences and/or intentions
THE NATURE ARGUMENT: BEING BORN YOU
Sociobiology: science that uses evolutionary theory and genetic inheritance to examine the biological roots of social
behaviour
o Core assertion is that social behaviour among humans, like all organisms, evolved over time to secure the
survival of the species
Evolutionary psychology: a relabelled form sociobiology to explain human behaviour
Overall assertion that human behaviour is determined by genetics remains contentious and limited support in social
sciences
o Suggests biological theories of behaviour disregard the ability of humans to think before they act
THE NURTURE ARGUMENT: LEARNING TO BE YOU
We become the people we are through social interaction is what happens when young children are isolated from
human contact
Isolates: children raised in social isolation
Genetic makeup (nature) gives us the capacity to be social beings, but it is the process of social interaction (nurture)
that enables us to develop that capacity
MODULE 4.2 The Development of Self
SOCIOLOGICAL INSIGHTS
Self: one’s identity, comprising a set of learned values and attitudes that develops through social interactions and that
defines one’s self-image
Self-image: an introspective composition of various features and attributes that people see themselves as
The self is a key component of personality defined as individual’s relatively stable pattern of behaviours and feelings
(Charles H. Cooley) to be aware of oneself, one must be aware of society; self-consciousness and social consciousness
are inseparable because people cannot conceive of themselves without reference to others
Three-step process of the self:
1. We imagine how we look to others both physically and socially
2. We imagine how others look at us and pass judgement on what we present
3. Based on what we imagine, a self-concept develops
(George H. Mead) the self is composed of two complementary elements
1. I: the element of self that is spontaneous, creative, impulsive, and unpredictable
Part of consciousness that responds to things emotionally
2. Me: the socialized element of the self
Part of consciousness that thinks about how to behave; helps control the spontaneous impulses
of the I
Significant others: people we want to impress or gain approval from
Generalized other: a compilation of attributes associated with the average member of society; represents an
individual’s appreciation that other members of society behave within certain socially accepted guidelines and rules
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Document Summary

Personality: an individual"s relatively stable pattern of behaviours and feelings. Nature versus nurture: the debate over whether biological forces or environment define the person we become. Socialization: life-long process by which we learn our culture, develop our personalities, and become functioning members of society. Social interaction: the ways in which people interact in social settings which recognizing each person"s subjective experiences and/or intentions. Sociobiology: science that uses evolutionary theory and genetic inheritance to examine the biological roots of social behaviour: core assertion is that social behaviour among humans, like all organisms, evolved over time to secure the survival of the species. Evolutionary psychology: a relabelled form sociobiology to explain human behaviour. Overall assertion that human behaviour is determined by genetics remains contentious and limited support in social sciences: suggests biological theories of behaviour disregard the ability of humans to think before they act.

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