Textbook Notes (363,381)
Canada (158,358)
Psychology (3,263)
PSYC 3850 (88)

Intellectual Disabilities (PSYC 3850) Chapter Summaries

78 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
PSYC 3850
Carol Anne Hendry

Intellectual Disabilities Chapter Summaries Chapter 1 Understanding Intellectual Disabilities Historical PerspectivesBefore 1800 having intellectual disabilities was not considered an urgent social problem instead those with severe disabilities were either killed or died of natural causes at an early ageIn some cases those with disabilities were viewed as a drain on society and were targeted for elimination until recent times in the 1900s Disciplines and Professions TerminologyPast definitions of intellectual disabilities defined it as genetically determined and an incurable conditionIntellectual disabilities includes a wide range of behaviour o It unfortunately shares what other labeling terms do in terms of being a convenient generalized expression about persons or groupsIntellectual disabilities is both a o Label of factThis form of a label must be quantifiable and verifiableIt must demonstrate observed characteristics that are verifiable and quantifiable20 of intellectual disabilities is caused by biomedical factors o Label of conjectureThis form of a label may include concepts that are as yet only hypothesised80 of intellectual disabilities is caused by unknown reasonsThis is mainly due to the influence of the environment has on people Contributions of Biological and Medical SciencesFocus is on medical professionalsphysicians and psychiatryAn intellectual disability as a label of fact is an identifiable condition that is most frequently related to a biomedical cause which isnt always so clearA physician is frequently the first professional to identify diagnose and counsel parents of children with intellectual disabilities o They view intellectual disabilities from a physiological perspective o They also do not sufficient background to understand the nonmedical complications of those suffering from intellectual disabilities o This limits their effectiveness in working with the familyAdvances in genetics have opened avenues that will allow professionals to prevent many forms of intellectual disabilitiesContributions of the Behavioral SciencesFocus is on psychology anthropology sociology and lawThe behavioural sciences has also made many important contributions to the understanding and treatment of intellectual disabilities o However most the fields have dealt with it in a limited fashion o Each field generally has operated independently and within the confines of its own terminology and parametersPsychology o Has been the behavioural science most directly involved in the scientific study of intellectual disabilities o Three important areas to which psychology as contributed areIntelligence theory and testingLearning theory researchInterpersonal social aspects Contributions of EducationEducation especially special education is the most involved in intellectual disabilities services because of its nature and role in societyThe contributions of education in aiding the understanding of intellectual disabilities has been to o Identify needs o Stimulate research and theory o Coordinate and deliver instruction and related servicesIdentifying children with intellectual disabilities was on the earliest efforts of education Disciplinary CollaborationTo better support individuals with intellectual disabilities professionals must collaborate efforts and involve the familyDifferent professions are making progress towards bridging the gaps among their perspectivesTwo factors has prompted this progress 1 Experience has shown that people with intellectual disabilities being served is one of the biggest reason cooperation has started 2 Promoting change is the realization that something can actually be done to promote interdisciplinary collaborationThe principle of inclusion o Involves placing a significant number of children with intellectual disabilities in general education classrooms o This approach for education children with disabilities requires significant collaborative efforts among general and special educators Intellectual Disabilities as a ConceptMany factors contribute to the lack of precision in classification and definition of intellectual disabilitiesIntellectual disabilities always implies a reduced level of intellectual capacity and the concept of intelligence has played a central but variable role in defining intellectual disabilities o This is due in part to relation intellectual disabilities has with performance measurement of intelligence and social competence Individuals with intellectual disabilities must be viewed as developing human beings with varying needs and characteristics living in a fluid and complex society Intellectual Disabilities A Definition in TransitionThe American Association on Mental Retardation AAMR definition of intellectual disabilities states that o Mental retardation is a disability characterised by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behaviour as expressed in conceptual social and practical adaptive skills o This disability originates before age 18Add to this definition 5 assumptions that are essential considerations in applying the definition 1 Limitations in present functioning must be considered within the context of community environments typical of the individuals age peers and culture 2 Valid assessment considers cultural and linguistic diversity as well as differences in communication sensory motor and behavioural factorsIt must take into account the individuals diversity and unique response factors 3 People with mental retardation are complex human beings who likely have certain gifts as well as limitations 4 An important purpose of describing limitations is to develop a profile of needed supports 5 With appropriate personalized supports over a sustained period the life functioning of the person with mental retardation generally will improveIndividuals behaviours are considered adaptive to the degree they that manage personal needs display social competence and avoid problem behavioursOne perspective of a person with intellectual disabilities is a person who relies on some protection and support from the family or community factors to take into consideration a The deficits or level of functioning of the individual with intellectual disabilities b The threshold of community tolerance Incidence and PrevalenceTwo terms frequently have been confused in the field of intellectual disabilitiesincidence and prevalenceIncidence o Refers to the number of NEW causes identified during a given time period often 1 yearPrevalence o Refers to ALL cases existing at a given time including both newly identified cases and cases still labeled as having intellectual disabilities from some earlier diagnosis
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 3850

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.