Textbook Notes (369,058)
Canada (162,366)
PSCI 110 (8)
Chapter 8

PSCI-Ch.8.pdf

14 Pages
99 Views

Department
Political Science
Course Code
PSCI 110
Professor
Jingjing Huo

This preview shows pages 1,2,3. Sign up to view the full 14 pages of the document.
Description
Ch.8- Advanced Liberal Democracies KeyConcepts ● Advanced Democracies- Characterized by institutional liberal democracy and capitalism ● Despite set of shared core instit’ns AD differ greatly in how their political, economic, and social institutions are constructed ● All ADs have faced changes in and challenge to sovereignty in forms of suprantional integration and devolution ● Many ADs have seen rise in postmodern values- through these may come into conflict with ethnic and religious diversity ● Economic institutions in advanced democracies have become increasingly postindustrial and tied to large welfare states- encounter challenges as their ppls grow older Def’n of Advanced Liberal Democracies ● Country with institutional democracy and high level of economic development ○ Have degree of institutionalization of participation, competition and liberty ○ Area of economic development and prosperity- consider presence of private property, open markets, and level of GDP at PPP (purchasing-power parity) ■ GDP- Small portion of GDP derived from agriculture and industrial production ● During and After Indus Rev- Industry displaced agriculture in many today’s ADs ● Today- Industry is now increasingly being displaced by service sector- includes retail sales, info tech, edu ● USA; CAN; Sweden; UK; Ger; Japan; Fr; SK; SArabia; Poland; ■ Consider economic output that countries produce ■ Consider output wealth- overall well-being of society- HDI(Human Development Index) ● USA (4); CAN (8); Sweden (9), Ger, Japan, SK ○ ADs share not only liberal democratic regimes but capitalist economic systems- (liberal, social democratic, mercantilist) which service sector dominates and high HDI ○ ADs have grown markedly more diverse over past decades ■ Poland and SK- historically categorized as 2nd and 3rd worlds, respectivly ● Poland- postcommunist -now- much more in common economically and politically with Western Europe (like Ger and Fr) ● South Korea- has more in common with Japan and US than it does with other, less-developed countries in Asia ● Have high levels of economic development - GDP per capita PPP over 12k- and small agricultural sectors ● Recent global economic and political changes- ADs has expanded well beyond its traditional provinces of western Europe and NA Freedomand Equalityin Advanced Democracies ● ADs reconcile freedom and equality differently; united by common democratic and economic institutions ○ Liberal economic sys- Focus more on individuals freedoms than on collective equality; limiting the role of the state in regulating the market and providing public goods ○ Social Democratic sys- Focus more on collective equality. Opposite ○ Mercentalist sys- Tend to focus more on development than either freedom or equality ● Freedom ○ All ADs are institutionalized liberal democs share belief- participation, competition, and liberty ○ Civil Rights and Liberties- can be expanded or restricted without ? of democratic nature ■ Abortions ● Some (CAN; Swe;Greece) allows abortions during 1st trimester ● SK; Argentina; Poland- abortions more restricted ● Chile; Ireland- Ban abortions altogether/ allow only in exceptional circumstances ■ Similar discrepancies- prostitution; drugs; hate speech; degree to which privacy is protected from state/ economic actors ○ Judicial Sys interpret and defend their citizen’s rights in various ways ■ Some rely on vigorous constitutional courts whose wide powers allow them to overturn legislation ■ Other courts play more conservative role- circumscribed by forms of abstract and concrete review ● Freedom cont. ○ Public’s level of political participation also varies ■ Use of referenda and initiatives differ greatly across ● Most use to certain degree ● USA; Ger-Votes take place at local level ● Japan- Not at all ○ Competition differs across ADs ■ Ways in which political parties and campaigns are funded ● Some- limit amount of money that can be contributed by private actors to any political party or candidate ○ Require disclosure of the source of private political contributions ■ Politics shaped by electoral systems in use ● Majority rely on form of proportional representations to elect legislatures ● Minority- USA; CAN; Fr; UK; AUS- rely on form of single member district plurality or majority ● Others- Mexico; Italy; Japan; Hung- use mixed electoral systems ○ Role of executive differs ■ PMs- tend to be dominant execs in ADs ■ Purely Pres sys-USA;Chile; Mex;Taiwan ■ SemiPres sys- France; South Korea ■ Some states have fed sys/ unitary; Legis- bicameral/unicameral ○ Freedom basic guarantee state unto its citizens- form and content of freedom vary from case to case ● Equality ○ Emphasizes capitalism- private property and free markets ○ Basic standards of living higher; life expectancy over 70yrs ○ Prosperity coexists with varying degrees of inequality- with wealth sometimes concentrated disproportionately among certain ethnic groups ○ Gini Index- measurement of inequality around world ■ Countries differ greatly in Gini although levels of econ development roughly same ● Equality cont ○ Distribution of wealth differ greatly ■ USA;Mexico; Japan- state expends little on social-welfare programs ● Individuals/families have greater responsibility for funding basic needs ● Result-Tax burden on public typically lower ■ Europe- Taxation often higher, resulting revenues used for income redistribution through extensive sys of social expenditures ● Social democratic sys- not uniform ○ Some-job protection; unemployment insurance; neo corporatist institutions Advanced Democracies Today ● Modern ○ Characterized as secular, rational, materialistic, tech, bureaucratic and placing greater emphasis on individual freedom than in the past ● ADs not only diverse but dynamic ○ Institutions are subject to change under influence of domestic and int’l forces ● Scholars argue ADs undergoing significant social, political and economic changes ○ If true- means existing modern institutions may give way to new ones ● Awkd term Postmodern ○ Characterized by set of values that center on quality of life considerations and give less attention to material gain ● Defined by challenges- political, societal, and economic institutions Political Institutions: SovereigntyTransformed ● Recent decades- movement toward greater integration btw countries and devolution within countries ● Integration ○ Process by which states pool their sovereignty, surrendering some individ powers to gain politi, econ, societal benefits ○ Blurs line btw countries- forging tight connections, common policies, and shared rules that bind them together ● EU-Eg of Integration ○ Aftermath of WWII- Leaders argued conflicts in region b/c lack of interconnection btw countries-> foster insecurity/inequality and nationalism ○ Believed- if bound together by through economic, societal, political institutions- would reject war ■ Common political agenda- give states more int’l authority in postwar environment (dominated SU and USA) ○ 1950- process of integration moved incrementally ○ Small agreement- dealt with production of steel and coal; expanding to greater responsibilities; basic set of institutions- EU give ^sovereign power over state ○ European Council ■ Council comprised of heads of state/gov’t of every EU member ■ Set- general political direction and priorities/ resolve complex/priorities ■ Prez elected for 2 ½ yr terms by council; Not directly elected by EU public - office does not hold any exec power ○ European Commission ■ Body- 27 members (1/member) ■ Responsible for some specific policy area- transport, environment, energy ■ Prez- chosen by Council serve 5 yr terms ■ Prez- Propose and enforce laws/treaties; manage EU budget ○ European Parliament ■ Legislature- 736 members directly elected by EU member states 5 yr term ■ Passes- legislation made by commission; budget for EU; approves members of commission (can call for resignation) ■ Country’s reps- roughly proportional to size of ppl ○ European Court of Justice ■ 1 judge per country ■ Rules of EU laws and conflicts btw EU laws/ laws of member states ■ Member countries; EU bodies; companies; and individuals may appeal ■ EU laws supersedes national laws ○ No longer an intergovernmental sys- 2 or more countries cooperate on issues but may not be bound by organization’s resolutions ○ Supranational Sys- Sovereignty shared btw member states and EU ● EU cont ○ Growth of EU integration have been underscored by 2 recent projects- Changed EU in fundamental ways ■ Monetary Union (Jan/1/1999) ● Linked currencies to Euro-promote further econ growth/integrat’n ● Logic- allow for one measure of prices and values; ^competition by stimulating trade and cross-border investment in EU ● Would help foster true European identity ● Backed by world’s wealthiest countries- increase power int’ly by creating “reserve currency” for other countries ○ Reserve currency- global legitimacy that central banks would use as part of their monetary holdings ■ Main monetary standard for business and individuals around the world ● $US- global reserve currency for decades ● Jan/1/2002- EU members joined monetary union- under control Euro Central Bank- Largest single transfer of power in EU ● Sweden; Denmark; UK- declined; referenda failed/ failed to materialize (UK) ● 10/27 members- No Euro currency ● Success? ○ Serious rival to US ○ Economists- concerned- economic diversity in EU works against idea of single currency ○ Forces into single set of policies- interest rates (unsuitable)- diff growth/employment ○ Greece 2009- deficits -> racked up debts ■ Ran out of money- No longer able to borrow/ meet needs or cover ■ EU members (Ger) forced to loan money=afloat ■ Ripple effect and member need to take financial responsibility ● Solution? ○ Fiscal integration- EU needs to have more sovereignty over budgets/broader econ policies of members ○ Need for wealthier countries b/c took in poorer states (East Europe) ○ May even come to an end- huge setback for EU ○ Growth EU cont. ■ Ongoing Expnasion ● 1957- FR, Ger, Italy, Benelux ● 1973- UK, Ireland, Denmark ● 1980s- Southern Europe ● 1995- Sweden, Austria, Finland ● 2004-7- 12 countries in Eastern/Central Europe ● NOT in- Norway, Switz, Iceland ● =27 countries ● Small semi states not part of EU ● Growth created issues ○ New members poorer ○ Debate-richer/poorer will cooperate/share resource difficulti ○ Dynamics- ppl migrating west/ west firms relocate to east ■ Tensions over immigration and jobs ○ Heightened by ? future enlargement ■ key factor in development of EU authority ○ Negotiations - Iceland;Crotia; Serbia; Macedonia ○ Potential Candidates- Albania; Bosnia; Kosovo ■ Turkey- negotiation in 2005 ■ Where does EU end- Turkey muslim majority ■ Negotiations slowed- Turk- wondering if considered part of EU ● Devolution ○ Process by which political power is devolved/sent down to lower levels of gov’t ○ Intended to increase local participation, efficiency, and flexibility- tasks handled nat’l level-> managed by local authorities ○ Power are transferred away from central state institutions and vested at lower level ○ Reverses historical development of the state ○ Apparent Reversal? ■ ADs concerned- public mistrusts state- too large,distant, felxible ■ Devolut’n seen as way to counteract distrust- increasing local control and participation ■ Can give voice- ethnic minorities; greater control over local affairs ■ Hope democracy can be reinvigorated ● Devolution Cont. ○ Reality- Ways to take shape ■ Transfer of responsibility and funds to local authority ● Greater say in how policies are crafted and executed ● Craft policy to own conditions ● US (1990s)- welfare reform created bulk transfers of funds to the states- use $ to design/implement own social welfare policy ■ Creating wholly new political institutions -> provide ^ppl participation ● Canada (1999)- Nunavut created out of NWT- Give Inuit self-gov’t/ control over NR in region
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2,3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit