Textbook Notes (369,058)
Canada (162,366)
PSCI 110 (8)
Chapter 8


14 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
PSCI 110
Jingjing Huo

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Ch.8- Advanced Liberal Democracies KeyConcepts ● Advanced Democracies- Characterized by institutional liberal democracy and capitalism ● Despite set of shared core instit’ns AD differ greatly in how their political, economic, and social institutions are constructed ● All ADs have faced changes in and challenge to sovereignty in forms of suprantional integration and devolution ● Many ADs have seen rise in postmodern values- through these may come into conflict with ethnic and religious diversity ● Economic institutions in advanced democracies have become increasingly postindustrial and tied to large welfare states- encounter challenges as their ppls grow older Def’n of Advanced Liberal Democracies ● Country with institutional democracy and high level of economic development ○ Have degree of institutionalization of participation, competition and liberty ○ Area of economic development and prosperity- consider presence of private property, open markets, and level of GDP at PPP (purchasing-power parity) ■ GDP- Small portion of GDP derived from agriculture and industrial production ● During and After Indus Rev- Industry displaced agriculture in many today’s ADs ● Today- Industry is now increasingly being displaced by service sector- includes retail sales, info tech, edu ● USA; CAN; Sweden; UK; Ger; Japan; Fr; SK; SArabia; Poland; ■ Consider economic output that countries produce ■ Consider output wealth- overall well-being of society- HDI(Human Development Index) ● USA (4); CAN (8); Sweden (9), Ger, Japan, SK ○ ADs share not only liberal democratic regimes but capitalist economic systems- (liberal, social democratic, mercantilist) which service sector dominates and high HDI ○ ADs have grown markedly more diverse over past decades ■ Poland and SK- historically categorized as 2nd and 3rd worlds, respectivly ● Poland- postcommunist -now- much more in common economically and politically with Western Europe (like Ger and Fr) ● South Korea- has more in common with Japan and US than it does with other, less-developed countries in Asia ● Have high levels of economic development - GDP per capita PPP over 12k- and small agricultural sectors ● Recent global economic and political changes- ADs has expanded well beyond its traditional provinces of western Europe and NA Freedomand Equalityin Advanced Democracies ● ADs reconcile freedom and equality differently; united by common democratic and economic institutions ○ Liberal economic sys- Focus more on individuals freedoms than on collective equality; limiting the role of the state in regulating the market and providing public goods ○ Social Democratic sys- Focus more on collective equality. Opposite ○ Mercentalist sys- Tend to focus more on development than either freedom or equality ● Freedom ○ All ADs are institutionalized liberal democs share belief- participation, competition, and liberty ○ Civil Rights and Liberties- can be expanded or restricted without ? of democratic nature ■ Abortions ● Some (CAN; Swe;Greece) allows abortions during 1st trimester ● SK; Argentina; Poland- abortions more restricted ● Chile; Ireland- Ban abortions altogether/ allow only in exceptional circumstances ■ Similar discrepancies- prostitution; drugs; hate speech; degree to which privacy is protected from state/ economic actors ○ Judicial Sys interpret and defend their citizen’s rights in various ways ■ Some rely on vigorous constitutional courts whose wide powers allow them to overturn legislation ■ Other courts play more conservative role- circumscribed by forms of abstract and concrete review ● Freedom cont. ○ Public’s level of political participation also varies ■ Use of referenda and initiatives differ greatly across ● Most use to certain degree ● USA; Ger-Votes take place at local level ● Japan- Not at all ○ Competition differs across ADs ■ Ways in which political parties and campaigns are funded ● Some- limit amount of money that can be contributed by private actors to any political party or candidate ○ Require disclosure of the source of private political contributions ■ Politics shaped by electoral systems in use ● Majority rely on form of proportional representations to elect legislatures ● Minority- USA; CAN; Fr; UK; AUS- rely on form of single member district plurality or majority ● Others- Mexico; Italy; Japan; Hung- use mixed electoral systems ○ Role of executive differs ■ PMs- tend to be dominant execs in ADs ■ Purely Pres sys-USA;Chile; Mex;Taiwan ■ SemiPres sys- France; South Korea ■ Some states have fed sys/ unitary; Legis- bicameral/unicameral ○ Freedom basic guarantee state unto its citizens- form and content of freedom vary from case to case ● Equality ○ Emphasizes capitalism- private property and free markets ○ Basic standards of living higher; life expectancy over 70yrs ○ Prosperity coexists with varying degrees of inequality- with wealth sometimes concentrated disproportionately among certain ethnic groups ○ Gini Index- measurement of inequality around world ■ Countries differ greatly in Gini although levels of econ development roughly same ● Equality cont ○ Distribution of wealth differ greatly ■ USA;Mexico; Japan- state expends little on social-welfare programs ● Individuals/families have greater responsibility for funding basic needs ● Result-Tax burden on public typically lower ■ Europe- Taxation often higher, resulting revenues used for income redistribution through extensive sys of social expenditures ● Social democratic sys- not uniform ○ Some-job protection; unemployment insurance; neo corporatist institutions Advanced Democracies Today ● Modern ○ Characterized as secular, rational, materialistic, tech, bureaucratic and placing greater emphasis on individual freedom than in the past ● ADs not only diverse but dynamic ○ Institutions are subject to change under influence of domestic and int’l forces ● Scholars argue ADs undergoing significant social, political and economic changes ○ If true- means existing modern institutions may give way to new ones ● Awkd term Postmodern ○ Characterized by set of values that center on quality of life considerations and give less attention to material gain ● Defined by challenges- political, societal, and economic institutions Political Institutions: SovereigntyTransformed ● Recent decades- movement toward greater integration btw countries and devolution within countries ● Integration ○ Process by which states pool their sovereignty, surrendering some individ powers to gain politi, econ, societal benefits ○ Blurs line btw countries- forging tight connections, common policies, and shared rules that bind them together ● EU-Eg of Integration ○ Aftermath of WWII- Leaders argued conflicts in region b/c lack of interconnection btw countries-> foster insecurity/inequality and nationalism ○ Believed- if bound together by through economic, societal, political institutions- would reject war ■ Common political agenda- give states more int’l authority in postwar environment (dominated SU and USA) ○ 1950- process of integration moved incrementally ○ Small agreement- dealt with production of steel and coal; expanding to greater responsibilities; basic set of institutions- EU give ^sovereign power over state ○ European Council ■ Council comprised of heads of state/gov’t of every EU member ■ Set- general political direction and priorities/ resolve complex/priorities ■ Prez elected for 2 ½ yr terms by council; Not directly elected by EU public - office does not hold any exec power ○ European Commission ■ Body- 27 members (1/member) ■ Responsible for some specific policy area- transport, environment, energy ■ Prez- chosen by Council serve 5 yr terms ■ Prez- Propose and enforce laws/treaties; manage EU budget ○ European Parliament ■ Legislature- 736 members directly elected by EU member states 5 yr term ■ Passes- legislation made by commission; budget for EU; approves members of commission (can call for resignation) ■ Country’s reps- roughly proportional to size of ppl ○ European Court of Justice ■ 1 judge per country ■ Rules of EU laws and conflicts btw EU laws/ laws of member states ■ Member countries; EU bodies; companies; and individuals may appeal ■ EU laws supersedes national laws ○ No longer an intergovernmental sys- 2 or more countries cooperate on issues but may not be bound by organization’s resolutions ○ Supranational Sys- Sovereignty shared btw member states and EU ● EU cont ○ Growth of EU integration have been underscored by 2 recent projects- Changed EU in fundamental ways ■ Monetary Union (Jan/1/1999) ● Linked currencies to Euro-promote further econ growth/integrat’n ● Logic- allow for one measure of prices and values; ^competition by stimulating trade and cross-border investment in EU ● Would help foster true European identity ● Backed by world’s wealthiest countries- increase power int’ly by creating “reserve currency” for other countries ○ Reserve currency- global legitimacy that central banks would use as part of their monetary holdings ■ Main monetary standard for business and individuals around the world ● $US- global reserve currency for decades ● Jan/1/2002- EU members joined monetary union- under control Euro Central Bank- Largest single transfer of power in EU ● Sweden; Denmark; UK- declined; referenda failed/ failed to materialize (UK) ● 10/27 members- No Euro currency ● Success? ○ Serious rival to US ○ Economists- concerned- economic diversity in EU works against idea of single currency ○ Forces into single set of policies- interest rates (unsuitable)- diff growth/employment ○ Greece 2009- deficits -> racked up debts ■ Ran out of money- No longer able to borrow/ meet needs or cover ■ EU members (Ger) forced to loan money=afloat ■ Ripple effect and member need to take financial responsibility ● Solution? ○ Fiscal integration- EU needs to have more sovereignty over budgets/broader econ policies of members ○ Need for wealthier countries b/c took in poorer states (East Europe) ○ May even come to an end- huge setback for EU ○ Growth EU cont. ■ Ongoing Expnasion ● 1957- FR, Ger, Italy, Benelux ● 1973- UK, Ireland, Denmark ● 1980s- Southern Europe ● 1995- Sweden, Austria, Finland ● 2004-7- 12 countries in Eastern/Central Europe ● NOT in- Norway, Switz, Iceland ● =27 countries ● Small semi states not part of EU ● Growth created issues ○ New members poorer ○ Debate-richer/poorer will cooperate/share resource difficulti ○ Dynamics- ppl migrating west/ west firms relocate to east ■ Tensions over immigration and jobs ○ Heightened by ? future enlargement ■ key factor in development of EU authority ○ Negotiations - Iceland;Crotia; Serbia; Macedonia ○ Potential Candidates- Albania; Bosnia; Kosovo ■ Turkey- negotiation in 2005 ■ Where does EU end- Turkey muslim majority ■ Negotiations slowed- Turk- wondering if considered part of EU ● Devolution ○ Process by which political power is devolved/sent down to lower levels of gov’t ○ Intended to increase local participation, efficiency, and flexibility- tasks handled nat’l level-> managed by local authorities ○ Power are transferred away from central state institutions and vested at lower level ○ Reverses historical development of the state ○ Apparent Reversal? ■ ADs concerned- public mistrusts state- too large,distant, felxible ■ Devolut’n seen as way to counteract distrust- increasing local control and participation ■ Can give voice- ethnic minorities; greater control over local affairs ■ Hope democracy can be reinvigorated ● Devolution Cont. ○ Reality- Ways to take shape ■ Transfer of responsibility and funds to local authority ● Greater say in how policies are crafted and executed ● Craft policy to own conditions ● US (1990s)- welfare reform created bulk transfers of funds to the states- use $ to design/implement own social welfare policy ■ Creating wholly new political institutions -> provide ^ppl participation ● Canada (1999)- Nunavut created out of NWT- Give Inuit self-gov’t/ control over NR in region
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