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PSYCH 207: Midterm #1 Textbook Notes

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University of Waterloo
Jonathan Fugelsang

CHAPTER 1 Cognitive Psychology History Methods and ParadigmsCognitive psychology concerned with how people acquire store transform use and communicate information o Our mental life what goes on inside our heads when we perceive attend remember think categorize reason decide etcAristotle and Plato wrote a lot about memory o Plato compared storing something in memory to writing on a wax tabletCompared the mind to an aviary in which many birds are flying and memory retrieval was like trying to catch a specific bird o Aristotle empiricist Locke Hume Berkeley Mill o Plato nativist Descartes KantEmpiricism knowledge comes from an individuals own experience from the information that people collect from their senses and experiences o Human nature is malleable and people are the way they are due to previous learning o Environment plays a powerful rule in determining ones intellectual abilities o Locke 2 distinct ideasthings NOT related could be joined in the mind simply because they happened to occur or be presented to the individual at the same timeNativism emphasizes the role of constitutional factors native ability rather than learning o Peoples abilities are due to biologically endowed capacities and abilities o Ex Shortterm memory is attributed to innate structures of the human mind that is present at birth and is not learned formed or created due to experiencesStructuralismWundt wanted to establish a science of the mind to discover the laws and principles that explained our immediate conscious experience o Wanted to create a table of mental elements like a periodic table of elements o Believed psychologists could determine how these simple units of the mind can combine to produce complex mental phenomenaJames Baldwin known for his work on mental development in children sto 1 person to conduct controlled experiments with children including his own daughter o Major influence for Jean Piaget1 Introspection presenting observers with various stimuli and asking them to describe their conscious experiences performed by Wundt and his students o Wundt thought any conscious thought or idea resulted from a combination of sensations that could be defined in terms of 4 propertiesMode visual auditory tactile olfactoryQuality colour shape textureIntensityDurationStructuralism focus on the elemental components of the mind rather than why it worksFunctionalismWilliam James the way the mind works has a lot to do with its function o why does the mind work the way it does o Interested in conscious experience like Wundt but not the elemental componentsFunctionalists drew heavily on Darwinian evolutionary theoryStructuralism vs Functionalism SummaryStructuralists the proper setting for experimental psychology was the laboratory o experimental stimuli could be stripped of their everyday meanings to determine the true nature of the mind o FOCUS the simplest mental elements and the ways in which they could be combinedFunctionalists studied mental phenomena in reallife situations o psychologists study organisms in whole reallife tasks o FOCUS why the mind works the way it doesBehaviourismDefines psychological research in terms of observable measures emphasizing the scientific study of behaviourBehaviourists rejected the technique of introspection due to its subjective natureB F Skinner mental events were triggered by external environmental stimuli and gave rise to behaviours 2
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