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PSYCH257 Chapter Notes -System On A Chip, Emo, Mass Psychogenic Illness


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH257
Professor
David Moscovitch

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[ THIRTEEN ] SCHIZOPHRENIA AND OTHER PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS
Schizophrenia = startling disorder characterized by broad spectrum of cognitive & emotional dysf’ns, such
as delusions & hallucinations, disorganized speech & beh’, and inappropriate emotions
- can disrupt perception, thought, speech and mvmt—almost every aspect of daily f’n’g
- recovery rare
- financial drain; majority of ppl w/ scz in CAN unemployed and living in poverty
PERSPECTIVES ON THE CONCEPT OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
Early Figures in Diagnosing Schizophrenia
Kraeplin combined several symptoms of insanity:
- catatonia = alt’g immobility and excited agitation
- hebephrenia = silly and immature emotionality
- paranoia = delusions of grandeur/persecution
all included in dementia praecox
Kraeplin distinguished dementia praecox from manic-depressive illness (bipolar D)
Bleuler intro’d term schizophrenia
- reflected his belief tht underlying all unusual beh’s shown by ppl w/ scz was associative splitting of
basic f’ns of personality
Identifying Symptoms
Difficult to diagnose
- is actually # of beh’s/symptoms tht aren’t necessarily shared by all
CLINICAL DESCRIPTION
Psychotic = characterizes many unusual beh’s, although in its strictest sense it usually involves delusions
(irrational beliefs) and hallucinations (sensory exp’s in absence of ext. events)
- scz is one D tht involves psychotic beh’
Media portrayals cont’ to frequently depict ppl w/ scz as vio’
- mistakenly assume scz mean ―split personality‖
+ve symptoms include more active manifestations o abnormal beh’, or excess/distortion o f normal beh’
i.e. delusions and hallucinations
-ve symptoms involve deficits in normal beh’, in such areas as speech and motivation
Disorganized symptoms include rambling speech, erratic beh’, and inappropriate affect
Diagnosis req’s 2/more +ve/-ve/disorganized symptoms be present for at least 1 mth
Positive Symptoms
Delusions
… = misinterpretation of reality; disorder of thought content
―basic characteristic of madness‖
Cotard’s syndrome = person believes part of his/her body (i.e. brain) has changed in some impossible way
Capgrass syndrome = person believes someone he/she knows has been replaced by a double
Future studies should test whether deficit in integration of new material could have causal role in
persistence of delusions
Hallucinations
… = exp’ of sensory events w/o any input from surrounding env’
Ppl tend to exp’ hallucinations more frequently when unoccupied/restricted from sensory input
Theories: - not hearing voices of others, but are listening to own thoughts and can’t recognize difference
- auditory verbal hallucinations arise from abnormal activation of 1 auditory cortex

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Negative Symptoms
Include emotional & social w/drawal, apathy, poverty of thought/speech
Abt 25% scz display these symptoms
Avolition
… = inability to initiate and persist in activities
Aka apathy
Show little interest in performing even basic daily f’ns (i.e. personal hygiene)
Alogia
… = relative absence of speech
May respond w/ very brief replies tht have little content and may appear uninterested in convo
- sometimes delayed comments or slow reponses
Deficiency in comm’n believed to reflect –ve thought D rather than inadequate comm’n skills
- suggested tht they may have trouble finding right words to formulate thoughts
Anhedonia
… = presumed lack of pleasure exp’d
Indifference to activities considered pleasurable
i.e. eating, social interactions, sexual rel’ns
Affective Flattening
Flat affect = ~ to ppl wearing masks b/c dN show emotions when you would normally expect them to
Although they dN react openly to emotional situations, may be responding inside
May rep’ difficulty expressing emotion, not lack of feeling
Asociality
Severe deficits in soc’ rel’nshps
i.e. few friendships, little interest in socializing, poor social skills
Suggested: difficulties in processing info may contribute significantly to social skills deficits and other
social difficulties
Disorganized Symptoms
Disorganized Speech
Often lack insightawareness tht they have problem
Exp’ ―associative splitting‖ and ―cognitive slippage‖
- sometimes jump from topic to topic
- talk illogically
Tangentiality = going off on a tangent instead of answering specific q’n
Loose association = derailment; abruptly changing topic of convo to unrelated areas
Inappropriate Affect and Disorganized Behaviour
Inappropriate affect = laughing/crying at improper times; hoarding objects; acting in unusual ways in
public
Catatonia = involves motor dysf’ns tht range from wild agitation to immobility
Catatonic immobility = fearful of sth terrible happening if they move
Schizophrenic Subtypes
3 divisions: - paranoid = delusions of grandeur/persecution
- disorganized = hebephrenic; silly and immature emotionality
- catatonic = alt immobility and excited agitation
Paranoid Type
Cognitive skills and affect relatively intact
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