Organizational Behaviour - Chapter 4.docx

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Department
Management (MGH)
Course
MGHB02H3
Professor
Pascal Riendeau
Semester
Winter

Description
Organizational Behaviour – Chapter 4 – Values Attitudes and Work Behaviour Values • Values – A broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others • Preference means that values have to do with what we consider good or bad • Broad tendency means that values are very general and do not predict behaviour in specific situations well • There can be generational differences in values Eg. Traditionalists are respectful and have a high work ethic, boomers are optimistic workaholics, Gen X are cynical and confident, and Gen Y is confident, social, and somewhat unfocused Cultural Differences in Values • Can cause difficulty in forging business links across cultures • Work centrality was valued highest by Japan and lowest by the British • High work centrality means people are more likely to continue working despite for example, winning the lottery and generally work more hours • Hofstede’s Study – Scientist Hofstede questioned over 116000 IBM employees about work related values. There were four basic dimensions along which work related values differed across cultures: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/ femininity, and individualism/collectivism. Subsequent work with Michael Bond resulted in a fifth dimension: long term/short term orientation. • Power Distance – The extent to which an unequal distribution of power is accepted by society members. Small power distance cultures – inequality is minimized. Eg. Denmark, New Zealand, Israel. Large power distance societies – inequality is accepted as natural. Eg. Russia and Mexico. • Uncertainty Avoidance – The extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations. Strong uncertainty avoidance cultures stress rules and regulations, hard work, conformity, and security. Eg. Japan and Greece. Weak uncertainty avoidance includes Singapore, Denmark and Sweden. • Masculinity/Femininity – More masculine cultures differentiate gender roles, support the dominance of men and stress economic performance. Eg. Japan. More feminine cultures accept fluid gender roles, stress sexual equity, and stress quality of life. Eg. Scandinavian countries • Individualism/Collectivism – Individualistic societies stress independence, individual initiative, and privacy. Collective cultures favour interdependence and loyalty to family or clan. • Long-term/short-term orientation – Cultures with a long-term orientation tend to stress persistence, perseverance, thrift, and close attention to status differences. Eg. China, Japan and South Korea. Cultures with a short-term orientation stress personal steadiness and stability, face-saving, and social niceties. Eg. U.S., Canada and Great Britain. Implications of Cultural Variation • Exporting OB Theories – OB theories, research, and practices from North America might not translate well to other societies. Eg. North American managers encourage participation in work decisions by employees. For high power distance cultures, people might be more comfortable deferring to the boss’s decision. • Importing OB Theories – Some examples include Japanese management techniques such as total quality management and just-in-time production. By understanding cultural value differences, organizations can tailor important management practices to the home culture’s concerns • Appreciating global customers – An appreciation of cross-cultural differences in values is essential to understanding the needs and tastes of customers around the world • Developing global employees – Companies need to select, train and develop employees to have a much better appreciation of differences in cultural values and the implications of these differences for behaviour in organizations Attitudes • Attitude – A fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person, or category of people • Attitudes often influence our behaviour toward some object, situation, person, or group • Attitudes are a function of what we think and feel – belief and value • BELIEF + VALUE => Attitude -> Behaviour Job Satisfaction • Job Satisfaction – A collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs • There are two different aspects of satisfaction – Facet and Overall • Facet satisfaction is the tendency for an employee to be more or less satisfied with the various facets of the job. The most relevant attitudes toward jobs are contained in small groups of facets: The work itself, compensation, career opportunities, recognition, benefits, working conditions, supervision, coworkers, and organizational policy • Overall Satisfaction – An overall indicator of a person’s attitude toward his/her job that cuts across the various facets. The total of the attitudes individuals hold. • One measure of job satisfaction is the Job Descriptive Index • This questionnaire evaluates five facets of satisfaction through yes or no answers: people, pay, supervision, promotions, and the work itself • Another measure of satisfaction is the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) • Respondents indicate how happy they are with various aspects of their job on a scale ranging from “very satisfied” to “very dissatisfied” • What determines job satisfaction? Discrepancy, Fairness, Disposition, and Mood and Emotion • Discrepancy Theory – A theory that job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between the job outcomes wanted and the outcomes that are perceived to be obtained • Eg. There is strong evidence that satisfac
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