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MGHB02H3 (269)
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Chapter 2

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Management (MGH)
Anna Nagy

MGTB27 / 01 Week 2 Chapter 2 Personality and Learning (pg. 38 64) - Organizations remain competitive in todays rapidly changing environment by having continuous learning from employees What is Personality? - Personality is the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his/her environment & how he/she feels/thinks/behaves - Personality consists of genetics and long-term learning history Personality and Organizational Behaviour - Dispositional Approach focus on individual disposition and personality o According to this approach, individuals are predisposed to behave in certain ways o Initially thought that personality was an important factor in many areas of O.B. including motivation, attitudes, performance and leadership o After WWII, personality tests were used for the selection of military personnel o 1950s/60s, personality tests were popular in business organizations - Situational Approach focused on work environment that might predict and explain O.B. o Characteristics of the organizational setting such as rewards and punishment influence peoples feelings, attitudes, and behaviour - Interactionist Approach O.B. is the function of both dispositions and situation o Over the years, arguments erupted about which approach was correct which resulted in the person-situation debate o The interactionist approach says that both approaches should be considered in order to understand O.B. (e.g. know an individuals personality and the setting in which he/she works) o Extent to which personality influences peoples attitudes and behaviour depends on the situation Weak: not always clear how a person should behave (e.g. new volunteer community; personality has the most impact in weak situations) Strong: clear expectations for appropriate behaviour (e.g. military operations; personality tends to have less impact) - Most important implication of the interactionist perspective is fit: putting the right person in the right job, group, or organization and exposing different employees to different management styles - The Five-Factor Model or Big-Five provides a framework for classifying personality characteristics into five general dimensions The Five-Factor Model of Personality - The Big Five dimensions are known as the Five-Factor Model (FFM) o Extraversion Extent to which a person is outgoing versus shy Important for jobs that require a lot of interpersonal interaction (e.g. sales) High: enjoy social situations, sociable, outgoing, energetic, joyful Low: introverts avoid being sociable, outgoing, energetic, assertive o Emotional Stability/Neuroticism Degree to which a person has appropriate emotional control MGTB27 / 02 Week 2 Persons which low emotional stability tend to suffer and persons with high emotional stability are likely to have more effective interactions High: low neuroticism, self confident and have high self-esteem Low: high neuroticism, tend toward self-doubt and depression, insecure o Agreeableness The extent to which a person is friendly and approachable Likely to contribute to job performance in jobs that require interaction and involve helping, cooperating, nurturing others and involve teamwork High: agreeable, warm, considerate, friendly, cooperative, sympathetic Low: less agreeable, cold, inflexible, uncaring, intolerant, argumentative o Conscientiousness Degree to which a person is responsible and achievement-orientated Person with high conscientious are likely to perform well on jobs assigned High: dependable, positively motivated, hard working, self-disciplined Low: less conscientious, irresponsible, lazy, impulsive o Openness to Experience Extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas People high on openness experience doing well in jobs that involve learning and creativity given they tend to be intellectual, curious etc... High: more open, creativity, innovation Low: less open, favour status quo - The Big Five dimensions are relatively independent (e.g. you could be higher in one area than another and they hold up well cross-culturally) - Research Evidence of Big Five related to O.B. o Relates to job performance (higher level characteristics led to better performance) o Job performance depending on occupation (eg high extraverts are good managers) o Relates to work behaviour (e.g conscientiousness is related to attendance at work) o Predictors of motivation (strongest were neuroticism [-ve relationship] and conscientiousness [+ve relationship]) o Predictors of job satisfaction (strong to weak: neuroticism [high, -ve relation], conscientiousness[+ve], extraversion[+ve] and agreeableness[+ve]) o Job search/career success (extraversion, conscientious, openness to experience, and agreeableness related positively to a job seekers job search) Locus of Control - Locus of control is a set of beliefs about whether ones behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external forces o High internals: believe that the opportunity to control their own behaviour resides within themselves o High externals: believe that external forces determine their behaviour. See the world as unpredictable where fate, luck or powerful people control their destines - Internals tend to see stronger links between the effort the put into their jobs and the performance level that they achieve; more likely to perform effectively - Locus control influences O.B. by how employees perceive themselves as being able to control what happens to them. People with high internal control are more satisfied with their jobs, earn more money, and achieve higher organizational positionsMGTB27 / 03 Week 2 Self-Monitoring - Self-monitoring is the extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and relationships o Low self-monitors: wear their heart on their sleeves; not concerned with scoping out and fitting in with those around them o High self-monitors: take great care to observe and control the images that they project; behave somewhat like actors (monitoring and regulating their behaviour) - Self-monitoring affects O.B. because high self-monitors tend to gravitate to jobs that require a degree of role playing and the exercise of their presentation skills (e.g. sales, law, public relations, politics) - High self-monitors perform particularly well in occupations that call for flexibility and adaptiveness in dealings with diverse constituencies (most managers) - High self-monitors tend to be more involved in their jobs, perform at a higher level, and be more likely to emerge as leaders but experience more role stress and show less commitment to their organization Self-Esteem - Self-esteem is the degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation o High self esteem have favourable self-images o Low self-esteem unfavourable self-images, uncertain about the correctness of their opinions, attitudes, and behaviours - Behavioural plasticity theory tells us that people with low self-esteem tend to be more vulnerable to external and social influences than those who have high self-esteem. This is because low self-esteem people are unsur
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