Learning organization: An organization that has systems and processes for creating, acquiring,
and transferring knowledge to modify and change its behavior to reflect new knowledge and
insights. (Greater capacity for acquiring and transferring knowledge)
For key dimensions that are critical for a learning organization:
Vision/support: Leaders must communicate a clear vision of the organization’s strategy and
goals in which learning is a critical part and key to organizational success.
Culture: A learning organization has a culture that supports learning.
Learning systems/ dynamics: Employees are challenged to think, solve problems, make
decisions, and act according to a systems approach. Managers must be active in coaching,
mentoring, and facilitating learning.
Knowledge management/ infrastructure: Learning organizations have established systems and
structures to acquire, code, store and distribute important information and knowledge for those
who need it. This requires the integration of people, processes, and technology.
----Research has found that learning organizations are almost 50% more likely to have higher
overall levels of profitability than those organizations not rated as learning organizations.
The change process:
Unfreezing: The recognition that some current state of affairs is unsatisfactory.
----Crises are especially likely to stimulate unfreezing.
----Employee attitude surveys, customer surveys, and accounting data are often used to anticipate
problems and to initiate change before crises are reached.
Change: The implementation of a program or plan to move the organization or its members to
a more satisfactory state.
Refreezing: The condition that exists when newly developed behaviors, attitudes, or
structures become an enduring part of the organization.
----At this point, the effectiveness of the change can be examined, and desirability of extending the
change further can be considered. Refreezing is a relative and temporary state of affairs.
2. Issues in the change process: (Problems that need to be overcome)
Diagnosis: The systematic collection of information relevant to impending organizational
----Initial diagnosis can provide information that contributes to unfreezing by showing that a
problem exists. Once unfreezing occurs, further diagnosis can clarify the problem and suggest just
what changes should be implemented.
----Relatively routine diagnosis might be handled through existing channels.
----For more complex, nonroutine problems, seek out change agents: Experts in the application of
behavior science knowledge to organizational diagnosis and change. Or outside consultants.
Resistance: Overt or covert failure by organizational members to support a change effort.
Causes of resistance:
Politics and self-interest: People might feel that they personally will lose status, power, or even
their jobs with the advent of the change.
Low individual tolerance for change: Some people uncomfortable with changes.
Misunderstanding: The reason for the change might be understood.
Lack of trust: People might clearly understand the arguments being made for change, but not
trust the motives of those proposing the change.