! 1. Anticipatory Socialization: A large amount of socialization occurs before a person
becomes a member of an organization. Part of it includes skill and attitude acquisition.
! 2. Encounter: The new recruit, armed with some expectations about organizational life,
encounters the day-to-day reality of this life. Some aspects include orientation programs and
getting to know and understand the style and personality of one’s boss and co-workers. New
recruits are interested in having their personal needs and expectations met and if successful,
they should begin to identify with experienced organizational members.
! 3. Role management: the new member’s attention shifts to fine tuning and actively managing
his or her role in the organization. New recruit may be in a position to modify their role to
better serve the organization. Balancing work-family life demands is a part of this. Each of
these experiences provides additional socialization to the role occupant, who might begin to
internalize the norms and values that are prominent in the organization.
! Unrealistic Expectations: Research indicates that people entering organizations hold many
expectations that are inaccurate and often unrealistically high. As a result, once they enter an
organization they experience a reality shock and their expectations are not met. Occupational
stereotypes are partly to blame for this.
! Psychological contract: Beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations and
promises between them and their organization. Perceptions of psychological contract breach
occur when an employee perceives that their organization has failed to fulfill one or more
promised obligations of the psychological contract. This often results in feelings of anger and
betrayal and can have a negative effect on employees’ work attitudes and behaviour. It
happens because recruiters are often tempted to promise more than their organization can
provide to attract the best job applicants. In addition, newcomers often lack sufficient
information to form accurate perceptions concerning their psychological contract. There will
be differences in understanding between an employee and promised obligations. Downsizing
can also lead to this. Organizations need to ensure truthful and accurate information about
promises and obligations is communicated to new members before and after they join an
! Some organizations rely on external sources for employee socialization. Eg. Doctors.
Organizations differ in terms of who does, how it is done, and how much socialization is
done. Methods of socialization include:
! Realistic job previews: The provision of a balanced, realistic picture of the positive and
negative aspects of a job to applicants. They do this by obtaining the views of experienced
employees and HR officers about the positive and negative aspects of the job. Then, they
incorporate these views into booklets or videotape presentations for applicants.
! Orientation programs: designed to introduce new employees to their job, the people they
will be working with, and the organization. It is also to begin conveying and forming the
psychological contract and to teach newcomers how to cope with stressful work situations.
They are an important method of socialization because they can have an immediate effect on
learning and a lasting effect on the job attitudes and behaviours of new hires.