Chapter 8 Notes-Social Influence, Socialization, and Culture
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Chapter 8: Social Influence, Socialization, and Culture
! Information dependence: Reliance on others for information about how to think, feel, and
! Effect dependence: reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and
punishment. Involves two complementary processes. First, the group frequently has a vested
interest in how individual members think and act because such matters can affect the goal
attainment of the group. Second, the member frequently desires the approval of the group.
Motives for Social Conformity
! Compliance: Conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid
punishment. It primarily involves effect dependence. Although the complying individual
adjusts their behaviour to the norm, they do not really subscribe to the beliefs, values, and
attitudes that underlie the norm. Eg. Prison convicts.
! Identification: Conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote
the norm are attractive or similar to oneself. It is often revealed by an imitation process in
which established members serve as models for the behaviour of others. Eg. Children
behaving themselves as they get older.
! Internalization: Conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs,
values, and attitudes that underlie the norm. Conformity occurs because the norm is seen as
right, and not because it achieves rewards or avoids punishment. Eg. Religion.
! A compliant individual is necessarily doing something that is contrary to the way he or she
thinks or feels.
! Compliance can set t stage for more complete identification and involvement with
organizational norms and roles.
! Socialization: The process by which people learn the norms and roles that are necessary to
function in a group or organization. It is a learning process in which new members must
acquire knowledge, change their attitudes, and perform new behaviours. Socialization is also
the primary means by which organizations communicate the organization’s culture and values
to new members. In HR, it is called “onboarding”. Socialization process: different
socialization methods influences a number of proximal (immediate) outcomes which affect
! One important proximal outcome or organizational socialization is for newcomers to achieve
a good fit.
! Person-job fit: The match between an employee’s, knowledge, skills, and abilities, and the
requirements of a job.
! Person-organization fit: The match between an employee’s personal values and the values of
! Research has found that both P-J and P-O are strongly related to job attitudes and behaviours.
Stages of Socialization
! 1. Anticipatory Socialization: A large amount of socialization occurs before a person
becomes a member of an organization. Part of it includes skill and attitude acquisition.
! 2. Encounter: The new recruit, armed with some expectations about organizational life,
encounters the day-to-day reality of this life. Some aspects include orientation programs and
getting to know and understand the style and personality of one’s boss and co-workers. New
recruits are interested in having their personal needs and expectations met and if successful,
they should begin to identify with experienced organizational members.
! 3. Role management: the new member’s attention shifts to fine tuning and actively managing
his or her role in the organization. New recruit may be in a position to modify their role to
better serve the organization. Balancing work-family life demands is a part of this. Each of
these experiences provides additional socialization to the role occupant, who might begin to
internalize the norms and values that are prominent in the organization.
! Unrealistic Expectations: Research indicates that people entering organizations hold many
expectations that are inaccurate and often unrealistically high. As a result, once they enter an
organization they experience a reality shock and their expectations are not met. Occupational
stereotypes are partly to blame for this.
! Psychological contract: Beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations and
promises between them and their organization. Perceptions of psychological contract breach
occur when an employee perceives that their organization has failed to fulfill one or more
promised obligations of the psychological contract. This often results in feelings of anger and
betrayal and can have a negative effect on employees’ work attitudes and behaviour. It
happens because recruiters are often tempted to promise more than their organization can
provide to attract the best job applicants. In addition, newcomers often lack sufficient
information to form accurate perceptions concerning their psychological contract. There will
be differences in understanding between an employee and promised obligations. Downsizing
can also lead to this. Organizations need to ensure truthful and accurate information about
promises and obligations is communicated to new members before and after they join an
! Some organizations rely on external sources for employee socialization. Eg. Doctors.
Organizations differ in terms of who does, how it is done, and how much socialization is
done. Methods of socialization include:
! Realistic job previews: The provision of a balanced, realistic picture of the positive and
negative aspects of a job to applicants. They do this by obtaining the views of experienced
employees and HR officers about the positive and negative aspects of the job. Then, they
incorporate these views into booklets or videotape presentations for applicants.
! Orientation programs: designed to introduce new employees to their job, the people they
will be working with, and the organization. It is also to begin conveying and forming the
psychological contract and to teach newcomers how to cope with stressful work situations.
They are an important method of socialization because they can have an immediate effect on
learning and a lasting effect on the job attitudes and behaviours of new hires.