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Study Guide of chapter 8 for PSYA01

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

CHAPTER 8 MEMORY CHAPTER OUTLINE OVERVIEW & SENSORY MEMORY Memory involves cognitive process of encoding, storage, & retrieval of info. Encoding involves putting stimulus info in a form that our memory system can use. Storage involves maintaining it in memory, & retrieval involves locating & using it. Sensory memory stores newly perceived info for very brief period. Although sensory memory appears to exist for all senses, visual (iconic) & auditory (echoic) memories have received most empirical (observed) attention. SHORT-TERM OR WORKING MEMORY Info may enter working memory (also called short-term memory) from both sensory & long-term memory. Working memory works well for items at beginning & end of lists. It hold about 7 items & lasts for ~20secs., unless info is rehearsed. Verbal & visual info in working memory appears to be represented both phonologically & acoustically & is subject to manipulation by thought processes. An important cause of loss of info in working memory is displacement of older info to make room for newer info. LEARNING & ENCODING IN LONG-TERM MEMORY Long-term memory involves permanent structural change in brain. Our ability to retrieve info from long-term memory determined by how that info is learned or encoded. Rehearsal helps us store info permanently, although some types of rehearsal seem to be more effective than others. Special techniques (called mnemonics) improve storage & retrieval of info in long-term memory. THE ORGANIZATION OF LONG-TERM MEMORY Research has distinguished among permanent memories for autobiographical info, conceptual (concrete) info, info of which we are aware, & info of which we may be unaware. Studies involving amnesic ppl strongly suggest that the biological basis of long-term memory involves the hippocampus. REMEMBERING In many instances, remembering is automatic we do not have to put forth much conscious effort to retrieve a memory. In other cases, though, we must actively search for & use clues that help our retrieval of a memory. Forgetting of info is greatest during the 1 few yrs after it is learned & decreases slowly afterwards. Remembering is influenced by aspects of culture, such as teaching practices & societal traditions. Remembering complex info is often accurate because it involves reconstruction of info from existing memories. Info contained in other memories may interfere with recall of a particular memory. Hypnosis may help ppl recall info, but it may also bias the accuracy of info that is actually remembered. OPENING CASE - Mr. P actually in hospital for 11 yrs says he was there only for ~a week - diagnosed with Korsakoffs syndrome (state of physical & mental deterioration caused by excessive alcohol consumption) - after seeing 18 pictures (Mr.P doesnt remember seeing them before), he correctly identifies 17 of them OVERVIEW - Memory : cognitive processes of encoding, storing, & retrieving info - Encoding: process by which sensory info is converted into a form that can be used by brains memory system - Storage: process of maintaining info in memory - Retrieval: active process of locating & using stored info - 2 approaches to understanding memory: o physiological psychologists & neuroscientists trying to discover physiological changes that occur in brain when an organism learns something 1 www.notesolution.com o cognitive psychs study structure in metaphorical sense w info-processing models of memory - learning is tendency for behaviour to change as a result of experience; learning & experience produce changes in structure of brain - lapse of time may occur bw act of learning & change in behaviour caused by learning o i.e. finding that a new restaurant is opening, & then couple of days later when deciding where to eat, remember that restaurant & go there - Sensory memory: memory in which representations of physical features of stimulus are stored for brief durations o difficult to distinguish from perception - i.e. contains brief image of a sight we have just seen - Short-term memory: an immediate memory for stimuli that have just been perceived. It is limited in terms of both capacity ( 2 chunks of info) & duration (less than 20 secs) o i.e. remembering a new telephone # by rehearsing it but once we stop rehearsing it, we may not been able to remember it later - Long-term memory : memory in which info is represented on a permanent or near-permanent basis o no known limits & relatively durable i.e. Standing showed ppl 10,000 colour slides & found they could recognize most of them weeks later, even though they only saw them once o maybe occurs bc of physical changes that take place in connections among neurons in brain - metaphorical sense of memory suggests info flows from 1 type of memory to another Sensory input Sensory memory Short-term memory Long-term memory o called modal model of memory SENSORY MEMORY - in order for us to become aware of sensory memory, info must be presented very briefly so that we can perceive its after-effects o i.e. thunderstorm at night when bright flash of lightening reveals a scene, we see things before we recognize them ICONIC MEMORY - Iconic memory: form of sensory memory that holds a brief visual image of a scene that has just been perceived Sperling flashed set of 9 letters on screen for 50 milisecs; asked ppl to recall as many #s as they could method known as whole-report procedure o on avg., could remember only 4 or 5 letters; image of letters faded too fast for ppl to identify Sperling used partial-report procedure to determine whether capacity of iconic memory accounted for this limitation o asked ppl to name letters in only 1 of 3 horizontal rows; depending on pitch of tone (high, medium or low), were asked to report letters in respective lines when subjects were warned beforehand to which line they should pay attention to, there was no difficulty in naming all 3 letters o but then he sounded the tone after flashing letters on screen subjects had to retrieve info from iconic memory w delays, could recall line of letters accurately; indicated that their iconic memory contained an image of all 9 letters o he also varied delay bw flashing the letters &b sounding the tone - longer the delay, the less subjects remembered ECHOIC MEMORY - Echoic memory : form of sensory memory for sounds that have just been perceived - Acoustical info must be stored temporarily until all sounds of a word have been received o i.e. the word mallet mal doesnt make sense to us, so we wait for both syllables to make sense of it 2 www.notesolution.com
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