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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Notes

Management (MGH)
Course Code
Julie Mc Carthy

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Chapter 10 Communication Notes
What is Communication?
communication the process by which information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver
the simplest prototype for interpersonal communication is a one-on-one exchange between two individuals
the simplest communication model is valuable because it points out the complexity of the communication process and
demonstrates a number of points at which errors can occur, which can lead to a lack of correspondence between the sender’s
initial thoughts and the receiver’s understanding of the intended message
effective communication communication whereby the right people receive the right information in a timely manner
violating any of these 3 conditions results in a communication episode that is ineffective
Basics of Organizational Communication
Communication by Strict Chain of Command
chain of command lines of authority and formal reporting relationships
under this system, three necessary forms of communication can be accomplished
downward communication information that flows from the top of the organization toward the bottom
upward communication information that flows from the bottom of the organization toward the top
horizontal communication info that flows between departments or functional units, usually as a means of coordinating effort
within a strict chain of command, such communication would flow up to and then down from a common manager
Deficiencies in the Chain of Command
managers recognize that sticking strictly to the chain of command is often ineffective
the chain of command obviously fails to consider informal communication between members
getting the right information to the right people is often inhibited by filtering
filtering the tendency for a message to be watered down or stopped during transmission
the potential for filtering increases with the number of links in the communication chain
for this reason, organization establish channels in addition to those revealed in the formal chain of command
open door policy opportunity for employees to communicate directly with manager without going through chain of command
such a policy should decrease the upward filtering of sensitive information if subordinates trust the system
to prevent downward filtering, many firms attempt to speak directly with potential receivers, bypassing chain of command
even when the chain of command transmits information faithfully, it can be painfully slow
the chain of command can be even slower for horizontal communication between departments, and it is not a good mechanism
for reacting quickly to customer problems; therefore, cross-functional teams and employee empowerment are used instead
in summary, informal communication and the recognition of filtering and time constraints guarantee that organizations will
develop channels of communication beyond the strict chain of command
Manager-Employee Communication
manager-employee communication consists of the one-to-one exchange of information between a boss and an employee
perceptions that managers are good communicators tend to be correlated positively with organizational performance
How Good Is Manager-Employee Communication?
extent to which managers and employees agree about work-related matters and are sensitive to other’s point of view is one index
research indicates that managers and employees differ in their perceptions of issues—how employees should and do allocate
time; how long it takes to learn a job; importance employees attach to pay; amount of authority employee has; employee’s skills
and abilities; employee’s performance and obstacles to good performance; and manager’s leadership style
Barriers to Effective Manager-Employee Communication
in addition to basic differences in personality and perception, conflicting role demands and mum effect have been implicated
many managers have difficulties balancing task and social-emotional functions
mum effect the tendency to avoid communicating unfavourable news to others
employees with strong aspirations for upward mobility are likely to encounter communication difficulties with their bosses
The Grapevine
Characteristics of the Grapevine
grapevine an organization’s informal communication network that exists in any organization
as such, the grapevine often cuts across formal lines of communication that are recognized by management
observation suggests several distinguishing features of grapevine systems:
onot only is information communicated by word of mouth, but also by written notes, emails, and fax messages
oorganizations often have several grapevine systems, some of which may be loosely coordinated
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