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1 Apr 2011
Chapter 4
Valuesbroad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others
1) Occupational Differences in Values
-salespeople rank social values <average person
2) Values Across Cultures
-Work Centrality – value work differently
-Hofstedes Study
Work-related values:
Power Distanceunequal distribution of power is accepted by society members
- small inequality is minimized, superiors are accessible, power differences are downplayed
- large inequality is accepted, superiors are inaccessible, power differences are highlighted
Uncertainty Avoidanceuncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations
-strong stress rules and regulations, hard work, conformity, security
-weak less concerned with rules, conformity, security, risk taking is valued
-masculinity clearly differentiate gender roles, men dominant, stress economic performance
- femininity accept fluid gender roles, sexual equality, quality of life
individualism independence, individual initiative, privacy
collective interdependence, loyalty to family or clan
Long-term/Short-term Orientation
long-term – persistence, perseverance, thrift, close attention to status differences
short-term – personal steadiness and stability, face-saving, social niceties
3) Implications of Cultural Variation
Appreciating Global Customersunderstanding the needs and tastes of customers or clients around
the world
Developing Global Employeesselect, develop, train employees to have a better appreciation of
differences cultural values
Attituderespond consistently to some specific object, situation, person, category of people
-influence our behaviour; what we think and feel; product of a related belief and value
-Belief + Value = Attitude> Behaviour
-Persuasion modify or emphasize certain values is emotionally oriented
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Values broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others: occupational differences in values salespeople rank social values

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