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CA (168,340)
UTSC (19,304)
MGH (426)
MGHB02H3 (292)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2,3,4,5,6,9,11 Notes

26 Pages
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Department
Management (MGH)
Course Code
MGHB02H3
Professor
Brian Connelly

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OB FINAL EXAM NOTES
CHAPTER 2
Personality stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an
individual interacts with environment as well as how he/she feels, thinks and behaves
3 approaches
o Dispositional - Individuals possess stable traits or characteristics that
influence their attitudes and behaviours individuals are predisposed to
behave in certain ways
oSituational - Characteristics of the organizational setting such as rewards
and punishment influence peoples feelings, attitudes and behaviour
oInteractionist OB is a function of both dispositions and the situation
(most accepted approach)
In weak situations, roles are loosely defined, there are few rules and weak reinforcement
and punishment contingencies personality has biggest impact in these situations
In strong situations, the roles, rules, and contingencies are more defined less impact
5 Factor Model of Personality: (each dimension related to job perf., motivation & life
satisfaction; also predict job search and career success and are related to vocational
interests and preferences)
oExtraversion
oEmotional stability/neuroticism
oAgreeableness
oConscientiousness strongest predictor of overall job perf.
oOpenness to experience
Locus of Control - A set of beliefs about whether ones behaviour is controlled mainly by
internal or external factors
oInternal opportunity to control own behaviour resides within themselves
(initiative)
- more satisfied with their jobs, earn more money, and achieve higher
organizational positions
-cope with stress better, engage in more careful career planning
oExternals - believe that external forces determine their behaviour (fate, luck)
Self-Monitoring - The extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and
behave in social settings and relationships (high self-mon. take care to observe and
control images they project)
oHigh self-mon. show concern for socially appropriate behaviour and social
cues
oGravitate to jobs that require role-playing and use of self-presentation skills
oMore involved in jobs, perform better, more likely to emerge as leaders
oMore likely to have role stress and show less commitment to organization
www.notesolution.com
oMore likely to have more promotions and change employers
oNot comfortable in ambiguous social settings
oUnfamiliar cultures might provoke stress
Self-Esteem - The degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation
oPeople with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social
influences than those who have high self-esteem
oEvents and people in organizations have more impact on the beliefs and
actions of employees with low self-esteem
oPeople with high self-esteem make more fulfilling career decisions and have
higher job satisfaction and job performance
5 personality variables found to be important for OB:
oPositive affectivity - People who are high on positive affectivity (PA)
experience positive emotions and moods and view the world in a positive light
oNegative affectivity - People who are high on negative affectivity (NA)
experience negative emotions and moods and view the world in a negative
light
oProactive personality - Proactive individuals search for and identify
opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until they bring
about meaningful change
oGeneral self-efficacy - A general trait that refers to an individuals belief in
his or her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations
motivational trait rather than affective trait
oCore self-evaluations - A broad personality concept that consists of more
specific traits that reflect the evaluations people hold about themselves and
their self-worth, competence, and capability
4 traits of core self-evaluations: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus
of control & neuroticism (emotional stability)
- PA and NA emotional dispositions that predict ppls general emotional tendencies
Learning - A relatively permanent change in behaviour potential as a result of practice
or experience
Practical skills Job-specific skills, knowledge, technical competence.
Intrapersonal skills Problem solving, critical thinking, alternative work processes, risk
taking
Interpersonal skills Interactive skills such as communicating, teamwork, conflict
resolution.
Cultural awareness The social norms of organizations, company goals, business
operations, expectations, and priorities.
www.notesolution.com
Operant Learning Theory - The subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve
certain consequences It is the connection between the behaviour and the consequence
that is learned
oReinforcement process where stimuli strengthen behaviours
oReinforce stimulus that follows some behaviour & increases/maintains
probability of it occurring
oPositive reinforcement addition of stimulus increases probability of
behaviour
oNegative reinforcement removal of stimulus from situation where the
stimulus increases/maintains probability of some behaviour
Two important sources of reinforcement that managers often ignore are performance
feedback and social recognition
Perf. Feedback most effective when: conveyed in positive manner, delivered immediately
after observation, represented visually, specific to the behaviour being targeted
Social recognition involves informal acknowledgement, attention, praise, approval, or
genuine appreciation for work well done from one individual to another
For fast acquisition of some response, continuous and immediate reinforcement should be
used
Reducing probability of learned behaviour: Extinction (The gradual dissipation of
behaviour following the termination of reinforcement) and Punishment(The application
of an aversive stimulus following unwanted behaviour to decrease the probability of that
behaviour)
Social Cognitive Theory - People learn by observing the behaviour of others and can
regulate their own behaviour by thinking about the consequences of their actions, setting
goals, monitoring performance, and rewarding themselves
oModelling - The process of imitating the behaviour of others; Attractive,
credible, competent, high-status people are most likely to be imitated; It is
important that the models behaviour result in positive consequences and that
it is vivid and memorable
oSelf-efficacy - Beliefs people have about their ability to successfully perform a
specific task (determinants perf. Mastery, observ., social infl., physio. State)
oSelf-regulation - The use of learning principles to regulate ones own behaviour
(Discrepancy reduction and discrepancy production lie at the heart of the self-
regulatory process)
Ogranizational Learning Practises
oOB. Modification - The systematic use of learning principles to influence
organizational behaviour
oEmployee Rec. Programs - Formal organizational programs that publicly recognize
and reward employees for specific behaviours
www.notesolution.com

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Description
OB FINAL EXAM NOTES CHAPTER 2 Personality stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with environment as well as how he/she feels, thinks and behaves 3 approaches o Dispositional - Individuals possessstable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes and behaviours individuals are predisposed to behave in certain ways o Situational - Characteristics of the organizational setting such as rewards and punishment influence peoples feelings, attitudes and behaviour o Interactionist OB is a function of both dispositions and the situation (most accepted approach) In weak situations, roles are loosely defined, there are few rules and weak reinforcement and punishment contingencies personality has biggest impact in these situations In strong situations, the roles, rules, and contingencies are more defined less impact 5 Factor Model of Personality: (each dimension related to job perf., motivation & life satisfaction; also predict job search and career successand are related to vocational interests and preferences) o Extraversion o Emotional stability/neuroticism o Agreeableness o Conscientiousness strongest predictor of overall job perf. o Openness to experience Locus of Control - A set of beliefs about whether ones behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external factors o Internal opportunity to control own behaviour resides within themselves (initiative) - more satisfied with their jobs, earn more money, and achieve higher organizational positions - copewith stress better, engage in more careful career planning o Externals - believe that external forces determine their behaviour (fate, luck) Self-Monitoring - The extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and relationships (high self-mon. take care to observe and control images they project) o High self-mon. show concern for socially appropriate behaviour and social cues o Gravitate to jobs that require role-playing and use of self-presentation skills o More involved in jobs, perform better, more likely to emerge as leaders o More likely to have role stress and show less commitment to organization www.notesolution.com o More likely to have more promotions and change employers o Not comfortable in ambiguous social settings o Unfamiliar cultures might provoke stress Self-Esteem - The degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation o People with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high self-esteem o Events and people in organizations have more impact on the beliefs and actions of employees with low self-esteem o People with high self-esteem make more fulfilling career decisions and have higher job satisfaction and job performance 5 personality variables found to be important for OB: o Positive affectivity - People who are high on positive affectivity (PA) experience positive emotions and moods and view the world in a positive light o Negative affectivity - People who are high on negative affectivity (NA) experience negative emotions and moods and view the world in a negative light o Proactive personality - Proactive individuals search for and identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until they bring about meaningful change o General self-efficacy - A general trait that refers to an individuals belief in his or her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations motivational trait rather than affective trait o Core self-evaluations - A broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the evaluations people hold about themselves and their self-worth, competence, and capability 4 traits of core self-evaluations: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control & neuroticism (emotional stability) - PA and NA emotional dispositions that predict ppls general emotional tendencies Learning - A relatively permanent change in behaviour potential as a result of practice or experience Practical skills Job-specific skills, knowledge, technical competence. Intrapersonal skills Problem solving, critical thinking, alternative work processes, risk taking Interpersonal skills Interactive skills such as communicating, teamwork, conflict resolution. Cultural awareness The social norms of organizations, company goals, business operations, expectations, and priorities. www.notesolution.com Operant Learning Theory - The subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain consequences It is the connection between the behaviour and the consequence that is learned o Reinforcement processwhere stimuli strengthen behaviours o Reinforce stimulus that follows some behaviour & increases/maintains probability of it occurring o Positive reinforcement addition of stimulus increases probability of behaviour o Negative reinforcement removal of stimulus from situation where the stimulus increases/maintains probability of some behaviour Two important sources of reinforcement that managers often ignore are performance feedback and social recognition Perf. Feedback most effective when: conveyed in positive manner, delivered immediately after observation, represented visually, specific to the behaviour being targeted Social recognition involves informal acknowledgement, attention, praise, approval, or genuine appreciation for work well done from one individual to another For fast acquisition of some response, continuous and immediate reinforcement should be used Reducing probability of learned behaviour: Extinction (The gradual dissipation of behaviour following the termination of reinforcement) and Punishment(The application of an aversive stimulus following unwanted behaviour to decrease the probability of that behaviour) Social Cognitive Theory - People learn by observing the behaviour of others and can regulate their own behaviour by thinking about the consequences of their actions, setting goals, monitoring performance, and rewarding themselves o Modelling - The process of imitating the behaviour of others; Attractive, credible, competent, high-status people are most likely to be imitated; It is important that the models behaviour result in positive consequences and that it is vivid and memorable o Self-efficacy - Beliefs people have about their ability to successfully perform a specific task (determinants perf. Mastery, observ., social infl., physio. State) o Self-regulation - The use of learning principles to regulate ones own behaviour (Discrepancy reduction and discrepancy production lie at the heart of the self- regulatory process) Ogranizational Learning Practises o OB. Modification - The systematic use of learning principles to influence organizational behaviour o Employee Rec. Programs - Formal organizational programs that publicly recognize and reward employees for specific behaviours www.notesolution.com o Training Pograms - Effective training programs strengthen self-efficacy and include positive reinforcement, feedback, modelling, and self-regulation Behaviour Modelling Training state set of well-defined behaviours/skills to be learned; models displaying effective use of behaviours/skills; providing opportunities to practice those skills; providing feedback and social reinforcement after practice; max. transfer of behaviours to job Career Devt career planning and career mgmt. CHAPTER 3 Perception - The processof interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment 3 components of perception perceiver, target being perceived, situation (context) Perceiver past experiences (leads to devt of expectations that affect current perceptions), motivational state (needs unconsciously influence perceptions by causing us to perceive what we wish to perceive), emotional state (can influence perceptions anger, fear, happiness) Perceptual defence - The tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions (People often see what they want to see and hear what they want to hear) Target - Perceivers have a need to resolve ambiguities Situation - Perception occurs in some situational context, and this context can affect what is perceived; The most important effect that the situation can have is to add information about the target; The perception of a target can change with the situation even when the perceiver and target remain the same Social Identity Theory - People form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories self composed of personal and social identity o Personal identity based on our unique characteristics o Social identity based on our perception t
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