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Chapter 4

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Human Resources Management
HRM 3410
Rebecca Jubis

ADMS 3410- Chapter 4 Needs Analysis  Needs analysis refers to a process to identify gaps or deficiencies in employee and organizational performance  The way to identify performance gaps is to solicit information from those who are affected by the performance problem  Needs = required information – current results  The goal of needs analysis is to identify the differences between what is and what is desired or required in terms of results, and to compare the magnitude of gaps against the cost of reducing them or ignoring them  Needs analysis identifies, prioritizes and selects needs that will have an impact on internal and external stakeholders  Needs analysis helps to identify the causes and solutions to performance problems The Need analysis process  There are three levels of needs analysis: an organizational analysis, a task analysis and a person analysis  Step 1- a concern: the process of identifying training needs originates slowly and informally with a concern. This concern can be referred to as an itch or a pressure point, something that causes a manger to notice it. This concern might be as subtle as noticing that employees are treating customers in an abrupt manner, or observing that employees are spending a lot of time asking one another for help with a new system. Other concerns might be recognizing a shift in regular activities, such as increase in defective parts, accidents, or complaints  Step 2- Importance: After a concern has been raised, the next step is to determine if the concern is central to the effectiveness of the organization. Another important concern is the cost implications of a problem. A concern is important if it has an impact on outcomes that are important to the organization and its effectiveness  Step 3- Consult stakeholders: The next step is to involve the stakeholders who have vested in the process and outcomes. Support from key players in the organization is necessary from the beginning of the needs-analysis process. At a minimum, top management should understand the rational for the needs analysis. All stakeholders must buy into the needs-analyst process to ensure that the data collection will result in accurate information and that they have a vested interest in the success of the program  Step 4- Data collection: The next stage in the needs-analysis process is the most extensive and involves the documentation of the concern through the collection of information from three levels of analysis.  Needs analysis outcomes- once the needs analysis has been completed the information has to be examined and interpreted. The focus then shifts to an understanding of the performance problem and the search for the most effective solution. The needs analysis information is also used to write training objectives and to design training programs Organizational analysis  Organizational analysis refers to the study of the entire organization: its strategy, environment, resources, and context.  Key to an organizational analysis is finding out if a training program is congruent with an organizations strategy, and the existence of any constraints as well as support for the delivery and success of a training program  An organizational analysis can help identify potential constraints and problems that can derail a training program so they can be dealt with prior to the design and delivery of a costly program 1. Strategy: Most organizations have a strategy that consists of an organizations mission, goals and objectives such as a dedication to quality or innovation. Strategic training can be referred to as the alignment of an organizations training needs and programs with the organizations strategy and objectives. An organizations strategy should indicate the type and amount of training required. Training that is not linked to an organizations strategy can lower a company’s market value by as much as 1.9% 2. Environment: The environment is dynamic and uncertain. New technologies, competitors, recessions, and trade agreements can profoundly affect not only the need for and content of training but also employees receptivity to being trained. Training programs are often a direct result of government regulations. 3. Resource Analysis: an important component of an organizational analysis is determining an organizations ability to design and deliver a training program. A resource analysis- is the identification of the resource available in an organization that might be required to design and implement training and development programs. Training programs are costly and require considerable resources. In addition to the financial costs, the design and implementation of a training program requires considerable time and expertise. A resource analysis enables an organization to determine if it has the resources required for a training and developmental solution or if another less costly solution will be better. 4. Organizational Context: The climate of an organization refers to the collective attitudes of its employees toward work, supervision, and company goals, policies and procedures. One aspect that is important for training is training transfer climate. Training transfer climate- refers to characteristics in the work environment that can either facilitate or inhibit the application of training on the job. A strong training transfer climate is one in which there exist cues that remind employees to apply training material on the job, positive consequences such as feedback, and rewards for applying training on the job, and supervisor and peer support for the use of newly acquired skills and abilities. Learning Culture- refers to a culture in which members of an organization believe that knowledge and skill acquisition are part of their job responsibilities and that learning is an important part of work life in the organization. Information about an organizations training transfer climate and learning culture is important because it can help to determine if a training program is likely to be effective in an organization as well as whether a pre-training intervention might be required to improve the climate and or culture prior to the design and delivery of a training program. Task Analysis  Refers to the process of obtaining information about a job by determining the duties, tasks, and activities involved and the knowledge skills and abilities required to perform the tasks. There are six steps involves in a task analysis 1. Identify the target jobs 2. Obtain a job description 3. Develop rating scales to rate the importance of each task and the frequency with which it is performed 4. Survey a sample of job incumbents 5. Analyze and interpret the information 6. Provide feedback on the results  A Job description- refers to a statement of the tasks, duties and responsibilities of a job  A competency- refers to a cluster of related knowledge, skill, and abilities that enables the job holder to perform effectively  Competencies are behaviours that distinguish effective performers from ineffective performers  The goal is to develop competencies that are teachable  Rating scales must be developed in order to rate the importance of each task as well as how often a task is performed  Job incumbents as well as supervisors and subject-matter e
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